Note:
The chapter describes functions for image processing and analysis.
Most of the functions work with 2d arrays of pixels. We refer the arrays
as "images" however they do not neccesserily have to be IplImage’s, they may
be CvMat’s or CvMatND’s as well.
Calculates first, second, third or mixed image derivatives using extended Sobel operator
void cvSobel( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int xorder, int yorder, int aperture_size=3 );
aperture_size
=1 3x1 or 1x3 kernel is used (Gaussian smoothing is not done).
There is also special value CV_SCHARR
(=1) that corresponds to 3x3 Scharr filter that may
give more accurate results than 3x3 Sobel. Scharr aperture is:
 3 0 3 10 0 10  3 0 3for xderivative or transposed for yderivative.
The function cvSobel
calculates the image derivative by convolving the image
with the appropriate kernel:
dst(x,y) = d^{xorder+yoder}src/dx^{xorder}•dy^{yorder} _{(x,y)}The Sobel operators combine Gaussian smoothing and differentiation so the result is more or less robust to the noise. Most often, the function is called with (xorder=1, yorder=0, aperture_size=3) or (xorder=0, yorder=1, aperture_size=3) to calculate first x or y image derivative. The first case corresponds to
1 0 1 2 0 2 1 0 1
kernel and the second one corresponds to
1 2 1  0 0 0  1 2 1 or  1 2 1  0 0 0 1 2 1kernel, depending on the image origin (
origin
field of IplImage
structure).
No scaling is done, so the destination image usually has larger by absolute value numbers than
the source image. To avoid overflow, the function requires 16bit destination image if
the source image is 8bit. The result can be converted back to 8bit using cvConvertScale or
cvConvertScaleAbs functions. Besides 8bit images the function
can process 32bit floatingpoint images.
Both source and destination must be singlechannel images of equal size or ROI size.
Calculates Laplacian of the image
void cvLaplace( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int aperture_size=3 );
The function cvLaplace
calculates Laplacian of the source image by summing
second x and y derivatives calculated using Sobel operator:
dst(x,y) = d^{2}src/dx^{2} + d^{2}src/dy^{2}
Specifying aperture_size
=1 gives the fastest variant that is equal to
convolving the image with the following kernel:
0 1 0 1 4 1 0 1 0
Similar to cvSobel function, no scaling is done and the same combinations of input and output formats are supported.
Implements Canny algorithm for edge detection
void cvCanny( const CvArr* image, CvArr* edges, double threshold1, double threshold2, int aperture_size=3 );
The function cvCanny
finds the edges on the input image image
and marks them in the
output image edges
using the Canny algorithm. The smallest of threshold1
and
threshold2
is used for edge linking, the largest  to find initial segments of strong edges.
Calculates feature map for corner detection
void cvPreCornerDetect( const CvArr* image, CvArr* corners, int aperture_size=3 );
The function cvPreCornerDetect
calculates the function
D_{x}^{2}D_{yy}+D_{y}^{2}D_{xx}  2D_{x}D_{y}D_{xy}
where D_{?} denotes one of the first image derivatives and D_{??} denotes a second image
derivative. The corners can be found as local maximums of the function:
// assume that the image is floatingpoint IplImage* corners = cvCloneImage(image); IplImage* dilated_corners = cvCloneImage(image); IplImage* corner_mask = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(image), 8, 1 ); cvPreCornerDetect( image, corners, 3 ); cvDilate( corners, dilated_corners, 0, 1 ); cvSubS( corners, dilated_corners, corners ); cvCmpS( corners, 0, corner_mask, CV_CMP_GE ); cvReleaseImage( &corners ); cvReleaseImage( &dilated_corners );
Calculates eigenvalues and eigenvectors of image blocks for corner detection
void cvCornerEigenValsAndVecs( const CvArr* image, CvArr* eigenvv, int block_size, int aperture_size=3 );
For every pixel The function cvCornerEigenValsAndVecs
considers
block_size
× block_size
neigborhood S(p). It calcualtes
covariation matrix of derivatives over the neigborhood as:
 sum_{S(p)}(dI/dx)^{2} sum_{S(p)}(dI/dx•dI/dy) M =    sum_{S(p)}(dI/dx•dI/dy) sum_{S(p)}(dI/dy)^{2} 
After that it finds eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix and stores
them into destination image in form
(λ_{1}, λ_{2}, x_{1}, y_{1}, x_{2}, y_{2}),
where
λ_{1}, λ_{2}  eigenvalues of M
; not sorted
(x_{1}, y_{1})  eigenvector corresponding to λ_{1}
(x_{2}, y_{2})  eigenvector corresponding to λ_{2}
Calculates minimal eigenvalue of gradient matrices for corner detection
void cvCornerMinEigenVal( const CvArr* image, CvArr* eigenval, int block_size, int aperture_size=3 );
image
The function cvCornerMinEigenVal
is similar to cvCornerEigenValsAndVecs but
it calculates and stores only the minimal eigen value of derivative covariation matrix for every pixel,
i.e. min(λ_{1}, λ_{2}) in terms of the previous function.
Harris edge detector
void cvCornerHarris( const CvArr* image, CvArr* harris_responce, int block_size, int aperture_size=3, double k=0.04 );
image
The function cvCornerHarris
runs the Harris edge detector on image. Similarly to
cvCornerMinEigenVal and
cvCornerEigenValsAndVecs, for each pixel it calculates 2x2 gradient
covariation matrix M
over block_size×block_size
neighborhood.
Then, it stores
det(M)  k*trace(M)^{2}to the destination image. Corners in the image can be found as local maxima of the destination image.
Refines corner locations
void cvFindCornerSubPix( const CvArr* image, CvPoint2D32f* corners, int count, CvSize win, CvSize zero_zone, CvTermCriteria criteria );
win
=(5,5) then
5*2+1 × 5*2+1 = 11 × 11 search window is used.
criteria
may specify either of or both the maximum
number of iteration and the required accuracy.
The function cvFindCornerSubPix
iterates to find the subpixel accurate location
of corners, or radial saddle points, as shown in on the picture below.
Subpixel accurate corner locator is based on the observation that every vector
from the center q
to a point p
located within a neighborhood of q
is orthogonal
to the image gradient at p
subject to image and measurement noise. Consider the expression:
ε_{i}=DI_{pi}^{T}•(qp_{i})where
DI_{pi}
is the image gradient
at the one of the points p_{i}
in a neighborhood of q
.
The value of q
is to be found such that ε_{i}
is minimized.
A system of equations may be set up with ε_{i}
' set to zero:
sum_{i}(DI_{pi}•DI_{pi}^{T})•q  sum_{i}(DI_{pi}•DI_{pi}^{T}•p_{i}) = 0
where the gradients are summed within a neighborhood ("search window") of q
.
Calling the first gradient term G
and the second gradient term b
gives:
q=G^{1}•b
The algorithm sets the center of the neighborhood window at this new center q
and then iterates until the center keeps within a set threshold.
Determines strong corners on image
void cvGoodFeaturesToTrack( const CvArr* image, CvArr* eig_image, CvArr* temp_image, CvPoint2D32f* corners, int* corner_count, double quality_level, double min_distance, const CvArr* mask=NULL, int block_size=3, int use_harris=0, double k=0.04 );
image
.
eig_image
.
use_harris≠0
The function cvGoodFeaturesToTrack
finds corners with big eigenvalues in the
image. The function first calculates the minimal eigenvalue for every source image pixel
using cvCornerMinEigenVal function and stores them in eig_image
.
Then it performs nonmaxima suppression (only local maxima in 3x3 neighborhood remain).
The next step is rejecting the corners with the
minimal eigenvalue less than quality_level
•max(eig_image
(x,y)). Finally,
the function ensures that all the corners found are distanced enough one from
another by considering the corners (the most strongest corners are considered first)
and checking that the distance between the newly considered feature and the features considered earlier
is larger than min_distance
. So, the function removes the features than are too close
to the stronger features.
Reads raster line to buffer
int cvSampleLine( const CvArr* image, CvPoint pt1, CvPoint pt2, void* buffer, int connectivity=8 );
pt2.x
pt1.x
+1, pt2.y
pt1.y
+1 ) points in case
of 8connected line and pt2.x
pt1.x
+pt2.y
pt1.y
+1 in case
of 4connected line.
The function cvSampleLine
implements a particular case of application of line
iterators. The function reads all the image points lying on the line between pt1
and pt2
, including the ending points, and stores them into the buffer.
Retrieves pixel rectangle from image with subpixel accuracy
void cvGetRectSubPix( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, CvPoint2D32f center );
The function cvGetRectSubPix
extracts pixels from src
:
dst(x, y) = src(x + center.x  (width(dst)1)*0.5, y + center.y  (height(dst)1)*0.5)
where the values of pixels at noninteger coordinates are retrieved using bilinear interpolation. Every channel of multiplechannel images is processed independently. Whereas the rectangle center must be inside the image, the whole rectangle may be partially occluded. In this case, the replication border mode is used to get pixel values beyond the image boundaries.
Retrieves pixel quadrangle from image with subpixel accuracy
void cvGetQuadrangleSubPix( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, const CvMat* map_matrix );
A
b
] (see the discussion).
The function cvGetQuadrangleSubPix
extracts pixels from src
at subpixel accuracy
and stores them to dst
as follows:
dst(x, y)= src( A_{11}x'+A_{12}y'+b_{1}, A_{21}x'+A_{22}y'+b_{2}), whereA
andb
are taken frommap_matrix
 A_{11} A_{12} b_{1}  map_matrix =    A_{21} A_{22} b_{2} , x'=x(width(dst)1)*0.5, y'=y(height(dst)1)*0.5
where the values of pixels at noninteger coordinates A•(x,y)^{T}+b are retrieved using bilinear interpolation. When the function needs pixels outside of the image, it uses replication border mode to reconstruct the values. Every channel of multiplechannel images is processed independently.
Resizes image
void cvResize( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int interpolation=CV_INTER_LINEAR );
CV_INTER_NN
method.
The function cvResize
resizes image src
so that it fits exactly to dst
.
If ROI is set, the function consideres the ROI as supported as usual.
Applies affine transformation to the image
void cvWarpAffine( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, const CvMat* map_matrix, int flags=CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS, CvScalar fillval=cvScalarAll(0) );
fillval
.
matrix
is inverse transform from destination image
to source and, thus, can be used directly for pixel interpolation. Otherwise,
the function finds the inverse transform from map_matrix
.
The function cvWarpAffine
transforms source image using the specified
matrix:
dst(x’,y’)<src(x,y) (x’,y’)^{T}=map_matrix•(x,y,1)^{T}+b if CV_WARP_INVERSE_MAP is not set, (x, y)^{T}=map_matrix•(x’,y&apos,1)^{T}+b otherwise
The function is similar to cvGetQuadrangleSubPix but they are not exactly the same. cvWarpAffine requires input and output image have the same data type, has larger overhead (so it is not quite suitable for small images) and can leave part of destination image unchanged. While cvGetQuadrangleSubPix may extract quadrangles from 8bit images into floatingpoint buffer, has smaller overhead and always changes the whole destination image content.
To transform a sparse set of points, use cvTransform function from cxcore.
Calculates affine matrix of 2d rotation
CvMat* cv2DRotationMatrix( CvPoint2D32f center, double angle, double scale, CvMat* map_matrix );
The function cv2DRotationMatrix
calculates matrix:
[ α β  (1α)*center.x  β*center.y ] [ β α  β*center.x + (1α)*center.y ] where α=scale*cos(angle), β=scale*sin(angle)
The transformation maps the rotation center to itself. If this is not the purpose, the shift should be adjusted.
Applies perspective transformation to the image
void cvWarpPerspective( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, const CvMat* map_matrix, int flags=CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS, CvScalar fillval=cvScalarAll(0) );
fillval
.
matrix
is inverse transform from destination image
to source and, thus, can be used directly for pixel interpolation. Otherwise,
the function finds the inverse transform from map_matrix
.
The function cvWarpPerspective
transforms source image using
the specified matrix:
dst(x’,y’)<src(x,y) (t•x’,t•y’,t)^{T}=map_matrix•(x,y,1)^{T}+b if CV_WARP_INVERSE_MAP is not set, (t•x, t•y, t)^{T}=map_matrix•(x’,y&apos,1)^{T}+b otherwise
For a sparse set of points use cvPerspectiveTransform function from cxcore.
Calculates perspective transform from 4 corresponding points
CvMat* cvWarpPerspectiveQMatrix( const CvPoint2D32f* src, const CvPoint2D32f* dst, CvMat* map_matrix );
The function cvWarpPerspectiveQMatrix
calculates
matrix of perspective transform such that:
(t_{i}•x'_{i},t_{i}•y'_{i},t_{i})^{T}=map_matrix•(x_{i},y_{i},1)^{T}
where dst(i)=(x'_{i},y'_{i}), src(i)=(x_{i},y_{i}), i=0..3
.
Applies generic geometrical transformation to the image
void cvRemap( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, const CvArr* mapx, const CvArr* mapy, int flags=CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS, CvScalar fillval=cvScalarAll(0) );
fillval
.
The function cvRemap
transforms source image using
the specified map:
dst(x,y)<src(mapx(x,y),mapy(x,y))
Similar to other geometrical transformations, some interpolation method (specified by user) is used to extract pixels with noninteger coordinates.
Remaps image to logpolar space
void cvLogPolar( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, CvPoint2D32f center, double M, int flags=CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS );
matrix
is inverse transform from destination image
to source and, thus, can be used directly for pixel interpolation. Otherwise,
the function finds the inverse transform from map_matrix
.
The function cvLogPolar
transforms source image using
the following transformation:
Forward transformation (CV_WARP_INVERSE_MAP
is not set): dst(phi,rho)<src(x,y) Inverse transformation (CV_WARP_INVERSE_MAP
is set): dst(x,y)<src(phi,rho), where rho=M*log(sqrt(x^{2}+y^{2})) phi=atan(y/x)
The function emulates the human "foveal" vision and can be used for fast scale and rotationinvariant template matching, for object tracking etc.
#include <cv.h> #include <highgui.h> int main(int argc, char** argv) { IplImage* src; if( argc == 2 && (src=cvLoadImage(argv[1],1) != 0 ) { IplImage* dst = cvCreateImage( cvSize(256,256), 8, 3 ); IplImage* src2 = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 3 ); cvLogPolar( src, dst, cvPoint2D32f(src>width/2,src>height/2), 40, CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS ); cvLogPolar( dst, src2, cvPoint2D32f(src>width/2,src>height/2), 40, CV_INTER_LINEAR+CV_WARP_FILL_OUTLIERS+CV_WARP_INVERSE_MAP ); cvNamedWindow( "logpolar", 1 ); cvShowImage( "logpolar", dst ); cvNamedWindow( "inverse logpolar", 1 ); cvShowImage( "inverse logpolar", src2 ); cvWaitKey(); } return 0; }
And this is what the program displays when opencv/samples/c/fruits.jpg is passed to it
Creates structuring element
IplConvKernel* cvCreateStructuringElementEx( int cols, int rows, int anchor_x, int anchor_y, int shape, int* values=NULL );
CV_SHAPE_RECT
, a rectangular element;
CV_SHAPE_CROSS
, a crossshaped element;
CV_SHAPE_ELLIPSE
, an elliptic element;
CV_SHAPE_CUSTOM
, a userdefined element. In this case the parameter values
specifies the mask, that is, which neighbors of the pixel must be considered.
NULL
, then all values are considered
nonzero, that is, the element is of a rectangular shape. This parameter is
considered only if the shape is CV_SHAPE_CUSTOM
.
The function cv CreateStructuringElementEx allocates and fills the structure
IplConvKernel
, which can be used as a structuring element in the morphological
operations.
Deletes structuring element
void cvReleaseStructuringElement( IplConvKernel** element );
The function cvReleaseStructuringElement
releases the structure IplConvKernel
that is no longer needed. If *element
is NULL
, the function has no effect.
Erodes image by using arbitrary structuring element
void cvErode( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, IplConvKernel* element=NULL, int iterations=1 );
NULL
, a 3×3 rectangular
structuring element is used.
The function cvErode
erodes the source image using the specified structuring element
that determines the shape of a pixel neighborhood over which the minimum is taken:
dst=erode(src,element): dst(x,y)=min_{((x',y') in element)})src(x+x',y+y')
The function supports the inplace mode. Erosion can be applied several (iterations
)
times. In case of color image each channel is processed independently.
Dilates image by using arbitrary structuring element
void cvDilate( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, IplConvKernel* element=NULL, int iterations=1 );
NULL
, a 3×3 rectangular
structuring element is used.
The function cvDilate
dilates the source image using the specified structuring element
that determines the shape of a pixel neighborhood over which the maximum is taken:
dst=dilate(src,element): dst(x,y)=max_{((x',y') in element)})src(x+x',y+y')
The function supports the inplace mode. Dilation can be applied several (iterations
)
times. In case of color image each channel is processed independently.
Performs advanced morphological transformations
void cvMorphologyEx( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, CvArr* temp, IplConvKernel* element, int operation, int iterations=1 );
CV_MOP_OPEN
 openingCV_MOP_CLOSE
 closingCV_MOP_GRADIENT
 morphological gradientCV_MOP_TOPHAT
 "top hat"CV_MOP_BLACKHAT
 "black hat"
The function cvMorphologyEx
can perform advanced morphological
transformations using erosion and dilation as basic operations.
Opening: dst=open(src,element)=dilate(erode(src,element),element) Closing: dst=close(src,element)=erode(dilate(src,element),element) Morphological gradient: dst=morph_grad(src,element)=dilate(src,element)erode(src,element) "Top hat": dst=tophat(src,element)=srcopen(src,element) "Black hat": dst=blackhat(src,element)=close(src,element)src
The temporary image temp
is required for morphological gradient and, in case of inplace
operation, for "top hat" and "black hat".
Smooths the image in one of several ways
void cvSmooth( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int smoothtype=CV_GAUSSIAN, int param1=3, int param2=0, double param3=0 );
param1
×param2
neighborhood.
If the neighborhood size may vary, one may precompute integral image with cvIntegral function.
param1
×param2
neighborhood with
subsequent scaling by 1/(param1
•param2
).
param1
×param2
Gaussian kernel.
param1
×param1
neighborhood (i.e.
the neighborhood is square).
param1
and
space sigma=param2
. Information about bilateral filtering
can be found at
http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/MANDUCHI1/Bilateral_Filtering.html
param2
is zero, it is set to param1
.
sigma = (n/2  1)*0.3 + 0.8, where n=param1 for horizontal kernel, n=param2 for vertical kernel.Using standard sigma for small kernels (3×3 to 7×7) gives better speed. If
param3
is not zero, while param1
and param2
are zeros, the kernel size is calculated from the sigma (to provide accurate enough operation).
The function cvSmooth
smooths image using one of several methods. Every of the methods
has some features and restrictions listed below
Blur with no scaling works with singlechannel images only and supports accumulation of 8bit to 16bit format (similar to cvSobel and cvLaplace) and 32bit floating point to 32bit floatingpoint format.
Simple blur and Gaussian blur support 1 or 3channel, 8bit and 32bit floating point images. These two methods can process images inplace.
Median and bilateral filters work with 1 or 3channel 8bit images and can not process images inplace.
Convolves image with the kernel
void cvFilter2D( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, const CvMat* kernel, CvPoint anchor=cvPoint(1,1));
The function cvFilter2D
applies arbitrary linear filter to the image.
Inplace operation is supported. When the aperture is partially outside the image, the function
interpolates outlier pixel values from the nearest pixels that is inside the image.
Copies image and makes border around it
void cvCopyMakeBorder( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, CvPoint offset, int bordertype, CvScalar value=cvScalarAll(0) );
IPL_BORDER_CONSTANT

border is filled with the fixed value, passed as last parameter of the function.IPL_BORDER_REPLICATE

the pixels from the top and bottom rows, the leftmost and rightmost columns are replicated
to fill the border.IPL_BORDER_REFLECT
and IPL_BORDER_WRAP
,
are currently unsupported).
bordertype=IPL_BORDER_CONSTANT
.
The function cvCopyMakeBorder
copies the source 2D array into interior of destination array
and makes a border of the specified type around the copied area.
The function is useful when one needs to emulate border type that is different from the one embedded into a specific
algorithm implementation. For example, morphological functions, as well as most of other filtering functions in OpenCV,
internally use replication border type, while the user may need zero border or a border, filled with 1's or 255's.
Calculates integral images
void cvIntegral( const CvArr* image, CvArr* sum, CvArr* sqsum=NULL, CvArr* tilted_sum=NULL );
W
×H
, 8bit or floatingpoint (32f or 64f) image.
W+1
×H+1
, 32bit integer or double precision floatingpoint (64f).
W+1
×H+1
, double precision floatingpoint (64f).
W+1
×H+1
, the same data type as sum
.
The function cvIntegral
calculates one or more integral images for the source image as following:
sum(X,Y)=sum_{x<X,y<Y}image(x,y) sqsum(X,Y)=sum_{x<X,y<Y}image(x,y)^{2} tilted_sum(X,Y)=sum_{y<Y,abs(xX)<y}image(x,y)
Using these integral images, one may calculate sum, mean, standard deviation over arbitrary upright or rotated rectangular region of the image in a constant time, for example:
sum_{x1<=x<x2,y1<=y<y2}image(x,y)=sum(x2,y2)sum(x1,y2)sum(x2,y1)+sum(x1,x1)
It makes possible to do a fast blurring or fast block correlation with variable window size etc. In case of multichannel images sums for each channel are accumulated independently.
Converts image from one color space to another
void cvCvtColor( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int code );
The function cvCvtColor
converts input image from one color space to another.
The function ignores colorModel
and channelSeq
fields of IplImage
header,
so the source image color space should be specified correctly (including order of the channels in case
of RGB space, e.g. BGR means 24bit format with B_{0} G_{0} R_{0} B_{1} G_{1} R_{1} ... layout,
whereas RGB means 24format with R_{0} G_{0} B_{0} R_{1} G_{1} B_{1} ... layout).
The conventional range for R,G,B channel values is:
The function can do the following transformations:
RGB[A]>Gray: Y<0.299*R + 0.587*G + 0.114*B Gray>RGB[A]: R<Y G<Y B<Y A<0
CV_BGR2XYZ, CV_RGB2XYZ, CV_XYZ2BGR, CV_XYZ2RGB
):
X 0.412453 0.357580 0.180423 R Y < 0.212671 0.715160 0.072169*G Z 0.019334 0.119193 0.950227 B R  3.240479 1.53715 0.498535 X G < 0.969256 1.875991 0.041556*Y B  0.055648 0.204043 1.057311 Z X, Y and Z cover the whole value range (in case of floatingpoint images Z may exceed 1).
CV_BGR2YCrCb, CV_RGB2YCrCb, CV_YCrCb2BGR, CV_YCrCb2RGB
)
Y < 0.299*R + 0.587*G + 0.114*B Cr < (RY)*0.713 + delta Cb < (BY)*0.564 + delta R < Y + 1.403*(Cr  delta) G < Y  0.344*(Cr  delta)  0.714*(Cb  delta) B < Y + 1.773*(Cb  delta), { 128 for 8bit images, where delta = { 32768 for 16bit images { 0.5 for floatingpoint images Y, Cr and Cb cover the whole value range.
CV_BGR2HSV, CV_RGB2HSV, CV_HSV2BGR, CV_HSV2RGB
)
// In case of 8bit and 16bit images // R, G and B are converted to floatingpoint format and scaled to fit 0..1 range V < max(R,G,B) S < (Vmin(R,G,B))/V if V≠0, 0 otherwise (G  B)*60/S, if V=R H < 180+(B  R)*60/S, if V=G 240+(R  G)*60/S, if V=B if H<0 then H<H+360 On output 0≤V≤1, 0≤S≤1, 0≤H≤360. The values are then converted to the destination data type: 8bit images: V < V*255, S < S*255, H < H/2 (to fit to 0..255) 16bit images (currently not supported): V < V*65535, S < S*65535, H < H 32bit images: H, S, V are left as is
CV_BGR2HLS, CV_RGB2HLS, CV_HLS2BGR, CV_HLS2RGB
)
// In case of 8bit and 16bit images // R, G and B are converted to floatingpoint format and scaled to fit 0..1 range V_{max} < max(R,G,B) V_{min} < min(R,G,B) L < (V_{max} + V_{min})/2 S < (V_{max}  V_{min})/(V_{max} + V_{min}) if L < 0.5 (V_{max}  V_{min})/(2  (V_{max} + V_{min})) if L ≥ 0.5 (G  B)*60/S, if V_{max}=R H < 180+(B  R)*60/S, if V_{max}=G 240+(R  G)*60/S, if V_{max}=B if H<0 then H<H+360 On output 0≤L≤1, 0≤S≤1, 0≤H≤360. The values are then converted to the destination data type: 8bit images: L < L*255, S < S*255, H < H/2 16bit images (currently not supported): L < L*65535, S < S*65535, H < H 32bit images: H, L, S are left as is
CV_BGR2Lab, CV_RGB2Lab, CV_Lab2BGR, CV_Lab2RGB
)
// In case of 8bit and 16bit images // R, G and B are converted to floatingpoint format and scaled to fit 0..1 range // convert R,G,B to CIE XYZ X 0.412453 0.357580 0.180423 R Y < 0.212671 0.715160 0.072169*G Z 0.019334 0.119193 0.950227 B X < X/Xn, where Xn = 0.950456 Z < Z/Zn, where Zn = 1.088754 L < 116*Y^{1/3} for Y>0.008856 L < 903.3*Y for Y<=0.008856 a < 500*(f(X)f(Y)) + delta b < 200*(f(Y)f(Z)) + delta where f(t)=t^{1/3} for t>0.008856 f(t)=7.787*t+16/116 for t<=0.008856 where delta = 128 for 8bit images, 0 for floatingpoint images On output 0≤L≤100, 127≤a≤127, 127≤b≤127 The values are then converted to the destination data type: 8bit images: L < L*255/100, a < a + 128, b < b + 128 16bit images are currently not supported 32bit images: L, a, b are left as is
CV_BGR2Luv, CV_RGB2Luv, CV_Luv2BGR, CV_Luv2RGB
)
// In case of 8bit and 16bit images // R, G and B are converted to floatingpoint format and scaled to fit 0..1 range // convert R,G,B to CIE XYZ X 0.412453 0.357580 0.180423 R Y < 0.212671 0.715160 0.072169*G Z 0.019334 0.119193 0.950227 B L < 116*Y^{1/3} for Y>0.008856 L < 903.3*Y for Y<=0.008856 u' < 4*X/(X + 15*Y + 3*Z) v' < 9*Y/(X + 15*Y + 3*Z) u < 13*L*(u'  u_{n}), where u_{n}=0.19793943 v < 13*L*(v'  v_{n}), where v_{n}=0.46831096 On output 0≤L≤100, 134≤u≤220, 140≤v≤122 The values are then converted to the destination data type: 8bit images: L < L*255/100, u < (u + 134)*255/354, v < (v + 140)*255/256 16bit images are currently not supported 32bit images: L, u, v are left as isThe above formulae for converting RGB to/from various color spaces have been taken from multiple sources on Web, primarily from Color Space Conversions ([Ford98]) document at Charles Poynton site.
CV_BayerBG2BGR, CV_BayerGB2BGR, CV_BayerRG2BGR, CV_BayerGR2BGR,
CV_BayerBG2RGB, CV_BayerGB2RGB, CV_BayerRG2RGB, CV_BayerGR2RGB
)
Bayer pattern is widely used in CCD and CMOS cameras. It allows to get color picture out of a single plane where R,G and B pixels (sensors of a particular component) are interleaved like this:
R 
G 
R 
G 
R 
G 
B 
G 
B 
G 
R 
G 
R 
G 
R 
G 
B 
G 
B 
G 
R 
G 
R 
G 
R 
G 
B 
G 
B 
G 
The output RGB components of a pixel are interpolated from 1, 2 or 4 neighbors of the pixel having the same color. There are several modifications of the above pattern that can be achieved by shifting the pattern one pixel left and/or one pixel up. The two letters C_{1} and C_{2} in the conversion constants CV_BayerC_{1}C_{2}2{BGRRGB} indicate the particular pattern type  these are components from the second row, second and third columns, respectively. For example, the above pattern has very popular "BG" type.
Applies fixedlevel threshold to array elements
void cvThreshold( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, double threshold, double max_value, int threshold_type );
src
or 8bit.
CV_THRESH_BINARY
and
CV_THRESH_BINARY_INV
thresholding types.
The function cvThreshold
applies fixedlevel thresholding to singlechannel array.
The function is typically used to get bilevel (binary) image out of grayscale image
(cvCmpS
could be also used for this purpose) or for removing a noise, i.e. filtering out pixels with too small or too large values.
There are several types of thresholding the function supports that are determined by threshold_type
:
threshold_type=CV_THRESH_BINARY: dst(x,y) = max_value, if src(x,y)>threshold 0, otherwise threshold_type=CV_THRESH_BINARY_INV: dst(x,y) = 0, if src(x,y)>threshold max_value, otherwise threshold_type=CV_THRESH_TRUNC: dst(x,y) = threshold, if src(x,y)>threshold src(x,y), otherwise threshold_type=CV_THRESH_TOZERO: dst(x,y) = src(x,y), if src(x,y)>threshold 0, otherwise threshold_type=CV_THRESH_TOZERO_INV: dst(x,y) = 0, if src(x,y)>threshold src(x,y), otherwise
And this is the visual description of thresholding types:
Applies adaptive threshold to array
void cvAdaptiveThreshold( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, double max_value, int adaptive_method=CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C, int threshold_type=CV_THRESH_BINARY, int block_size=3, double param1=5 );
CV_THRESH_BINARY
and CV_THRESH_BINARY_INV
.
CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C
or CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_GAUSSIAN_C
(see the discussion).
CV_THRESH_BINARY,
CV_THRESH_BINARY_INV
CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C
and CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_GAUSSIAN_C
it is a constant subtracted from mean or weighted mean (see the discussion), though it may be negative.
The function cvAdaptiveThreshold
transforms grayscale image to binary image according to
the formulae:
threshold_type=CV_THRESH_BINARY
: dst(x,y) = max_value, if src(x,y)>T(x,y) 0, otherwise threshold_type=CV_THRESH_BINARY_INV
: dst(x,y) = 0, if src(x,y)>T(x,y) max_value, otherwise
where T_{I} is a threshold calculated individually for each pixel.
For the method CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_MEAN_C
it is a mean of block_size
× block_size
pixel neighborhood, subtracted by param1
.
For the method CV_ADAPTIVE_THRESH_GAUSSIAN_C
it is a weighted sum (gaussian) of
block_size
× block_size
pixel neighborhood, subtracted by param1
.
Downsamples image
void cvPyrDown( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int filter=CV_GAUSSIAN_5x5 );
CV_GAUSSIAN_5x5
is
currently supported.
The function cvPyrDown
performs downsampling step of Gaussian pyramid
decomposition. First it convolves source image with the specified filter and
then downsamples the image by rejecting even rows and columns.
Upsamples image
void cvPyrUp( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int filter=CV_GAUSSIAN_5x5 );
CV_GAUSSIAN_5x5
is
currently supported.
The function cvPyrUp
performs upsampling step of Gaussian pyramid decomposition.
First it upsamples the source image by injecting even zero rows and columns and
then convolves result with the specified filter multiplied by 4 for
interpolation. So the destination image is four times larger than the source
image.
Implements image segmentation by pyramids
void cvPyrSegmentation( IplImage* src, IplImage* dst, CvMemStorage* storage, CvSeq** comp, int level, double threshold1, double threshold2 );
The function cvPyrSegmentation
implements image segmentation by pyramids. The
pyramid builds up to the level level
. The links between any pixel a
on level i
and its candidate father pixel b
on the adjacent level are established if
p(c(a),c(b))<threshold1
.
After the connected components are defined, they are joined into several
clusters. Any two segments A and B belong to the same cluster, if
p(c(A),c(B))<threshold2
. The input
image has only one channel, then
p(c¹,c²)=c¹c²
. If the input image has three channels (red,
green and blue), then
p(c¹,c²)=0,3·(c¹_{r}c²_{r})+0,59·(c¹_{g}c²_{g})+0,11·(c¹_{b}c²_{b})
.
There may be more than one connected component per a cluster.
src
and dst
should be 8bit singlechannel or 3channel images
or equal size
Connected component
typedef struct CvConnectedComp { double area; /* area of the segmented component */ float value; /* gray scale value of the segmented component */ CvRect rect; /* ROI of the segmented component */ } CvConnectedComp;
Fills a connected component with given color
void cvFloodFill( CvArr* image, CvPoint seed_point, CvScalar new_val, CvScalar lo_diff=cvScalarAll(0), CvScalar up_diff=cvScalarAll(0), CvConnectedComp* comp=NULL, int flags=4, CvArr* mask=NULL ); #define CV_FLOODFILL_FIXED_RANGE (1 << 16) #define CV_FLOODFILL_MASK_ONLY (1 << 17)
new_val
is ignored),
but the fills mask (that must be nonNULL in this case).
image
. If not NULL, the function uses and updates the mask, so user takes responsibility of
initializing mask
content. Floodfilling can't go across
nonzero pixels in the mask, for example, an edge detector output can be used as a mask
to stop filling at edges. Or it is possible to use the same mask in multiple calls to the function
to make sure the filled area do not overlap. Note: because mask is larger than the filled image,
pixel in mask
that corresponds to (x,y)
pixel in image
will have coordinates (x+1,y+1)
.
The function cvFloodFill
fills a connected component starting from the seed point
with the specified color. The connectivity is determined by the closeness of pixel values.
The pixel at (x, y)
is considered to belong to the repainted domain if:
src(x',y')lo_diff<=src(x,y)<=src(x',y')+up_diff, grayscale image, floating range src(seed.x,seed.y)lo<=src(x,y)<=src(seed.x,seed.y)+up_diff, grayscale image, fixed range src(x',y')_{r}lo_diff_{r}<=src(x,y)_{r}<=src(x',y')_{r}+up_diff_{r} and src(x',y')_{g}lo_diff_{g}<=src(x,y)_{g}<=src(x',y')_{g}+up_diff_{g} and src(x',y')_{b}lo_diff_{b}<=src(x,y)_{b}<=src(x',y')_{b}+up_diff_{b}, color image, floating range src(seed.x,seed.y)_{r}lo_diff_{r}<=src(x,y)_{r}<=src(seed.x,seed.y)_{r}+up_diff_{r} and src(seed.x,seed.y)_{g}lo_diff_{g}<=src(x,y)_{g}<=src(seed.x,seed.y)_{g}+up_diff_{g} and src(seed.x,seed.y)_{b}lo_diff_{b}<=src(x,y)_{b}<=src(seed.x,seed.y)_{b}+up_diff_{b}, color image, fixed rangewhere
src(x',y')
is value of one of pixel neighbors.
That is, to be added to the connected component, a pixel’s color/brightness should be close enough to:
Finds contours in binary image
int cvFindContours( CvArr* image, CvMemStorage* storage, CvSeq** first_contour, int header_size=sizeof(CvContour), int mode=CV_RETR_LIST, int method=CV_CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE, CvPoint offset=cvPoint(0,0) );
binary
. To get such a binary image
from grayscale, one may use cvThreshold, cvAdaptiveThreshold or cvCanny.
The function modifies the source image content.
method
=CV_CHAIN_CODE,
and >=sizeof(CvContour) otherwise.
CV_RETR_EXTERNAL
 retrive only the extreme outer contours
CV_RETR_LIST
 retrieve all the contours and puts them in the list
CV_RETR_CCOMP
 retrieve all the contours and organizes them into twolevel hierarchy:
top level are external boundaries of the components, second level are bounda
boundaries of the holes
CV_RETR_TREE
 retrieve all the contours and reconstructs the full hierarchy of
nested contours
CV_RETR_RUNS
, which uses
builtin approximation).
CV_CHAIN_CODE
 output contours in the Freeman chain code. All other methods output polygons
(sequences of vertices).
CV_CHAIN_APPROX_NONE
 translate all the points from the chain code into
points;
CV_CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE
 compress horizontal, vertical, and diagonal segments,
that is, the function leaves only their ending points;
CV_CHAIN_APPROX_TC89_L1,
CV_CHAIN_APPROX_TC89_KCOS
 apply one of the flavors of
TehChin chain approximation algorithm.
CV_LINK_RUNS
 use completely different contour retrieval algorithm via
linking of horizontal segments of 1’s. Only CV_RETR_LIST
retrieval mode can be used
with this method.
The function cvFindContours
retrieves contours from the binary image and returns
the number of retrieved contours. The pointer first_contour
is filled by the function.
It will contain pointer to the first most outer contour or NULL if no contours is detected (if the image is completely black).
Other contours may be reached from first_contour
using h_next
and v_next
links.
The sample in cvDrawContours discussion shows how to use contours for connected component
detection. Contours can be also used for shape analysis and object recognition  see squares
sample in CVPR 2001 tutorial course located at SourceForge site.
Initializes contour scanning process
CvContourScanner cvStartFindContours( CvArr* image, CvMemStorage* storage, int header_size=sizeof(CvContour), int mode=CV_RETR_LIST, int method=CV_CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE, CvPoint offset=cvPoint(0,0) );
method
=CV_CHAIN_CODE,
and >=sizeof(CvContour) otherwise.
The function cvStartFindContours
initializes and returns pointer to the contour
scanner. The scanner is used further in cvFindNextContour to retrieve the rest of contours.
Finds next contour in the image
CvSeq* cvFindNextContour( CvContourScanner scanner );
cvStartFindContours
.
The function cvFindNextContour
locates and retrieves the next contour in the image and
returns pointer to it. The function returns NULL, if there is no more contours.
Replaces retrieved contour
void cvSubstituteContour( CvContourScanner scanner, CvSeq* new_contour );
The function cvSubstituteContour
replaces the retrieved contour, that was returned
from the preceding call of The function cvFindNextContour
and stored inside
the contour scanner state, with the userspecified contour. The contour is
inserted into the resulting structure, list, twolevel hierarchy, or tree,
depending on the retrieval mode. If the parameter new_contour
=NULL, the retrieved
contour is not included into the resulting structure, nor all of its children
that might be added to this structure later.
Finishes scanning process
CvSeq* cvEndFindContours( CvContourScanner* scanner );
The function cvEndFindContours
finishes the scanning process and returns the
pointer to the first contour on the highest level.
Calculates all moments up to third order of a polygon or rasterized shape
void cvMoments( const CvArr* arr, CvMoments* moments, int binary=0 );
The function cvMoments
calculates spatial and central moments up to the third order and
writes them to moments
. The moments may be used then to calculate gravity center of the shape,
its area, main axises and various shape characeteristics including 7 Hu invariants.
Retrieves spatial moment from moment state structure
double cvGetSpatialMoment( CvMoments* moments, int x_order, int y_order );
x_order
>= 0.
y_order
>= 0 and x_order
+ y_order
<= 3.
The function cvGetSpatialMoment
retrieves the spatial moment, which in case of
image moments is defined as:
M_{x_order,y_order}=sum_{x,y}(I(x,y)•x^{x_order}•y^{y_order})
where I(x,y)
is the intensity of the pixel (x, y)
.
Retrieves central moment from moment state structure
double cvGetCentralMoment( CvMoments* moments, int x_order, int y_order );
x_order
>= 0.
y_order
>= 0 and x_order
+ y_order
<= 3.
The function cvGetCentralMoment
retrieves the central moment, which in case of
image moments is defined as:
μ_{x_order,y_order}=sum_{x,y}(I(x,y)•(xx_{c})^{x_order}•(yy_{c})^{y_order}),
where x_{c}=M_{10}/M_{00}, y_{c}=M_{01}/M_{00}
 coordinates of the gravity center
Retrieves normalized central moment from moment state structure
double cvGetNormalizedCentralMoment( CvMoments* moments, int x_order, int y_order );
x_order
>= 0.
y_order
>= 0 and x_order
+ y_order
<= 3.
The function cvGetNormalizedCentralMoment
retrieves the normalized central moment:
η_{x_order,y_order}= μ_{x_order,y_order}/M_{00}^{((y_order+x_order)/2+1)}
Calculates seven Hu invariants
void cvGetHuMoments( CvMoments* moments, CvHuMoments* hu_moments );
The function cvGetHuMoments
calculates seven Hu invariants that are defined as:
h_{1}=η_{20}+η_{02} h_{2}=(η_{20}η_{02})²+4η_{11}² h_{3}=(η_{30}3η_{12})²+ (3η_{21}η_{03})² h_{4}=(η_{30}+η_{12})²+ (η_{21}+η_{03})² h_{5}=(η_{30}3η_{12})(η_{30}+η_{12})[(η_{30}+η_{12})²3(η_{21}+η_{03})²]+(3η_{21}η_{03})(η_{21}+η_{03})[3(η_{30}+η_{12})²(η_{21}+η_{03})²] h_{6}=(η_{20}η_{02})[(η_{30}+η_{12})² (η_{21}+η_{03})²]+4η_{11}(η_{30}+η_{12})(η_{21}+η_{03}) h_{7}=(3η_{21}η_{03})(η_{21}+η_{03})[3(η_{30}+η_{12})²(η_{21}+η_{03})²](η_{30}3η_{12})(η_{21}+η_{03})[3(η_{30}+η_{12})²(η_{21}+η_{03})²]
These values are proved to be invariants to the image scale, rotation, and reflection except the seventh one, whose sign is changed by reflection.
Finds lines in binary image using Hough transform
CvSeq* cvHoughLines2( CvArr* image, void* line_storage, int method, double rho, double theta, int threshold, double param1=0, double param2=0 );
cols
or rows
will contain
a number of lines detected. If line_storage
is a matrix and the actual number of lines
exceeds the matrix size, the maximum possible number of lines is returned
(in case of standard hough transform the lines are sorted by the accumulator value).
CV_HOUGH_STANDARD
 classical or standard Hough transform. Every line is represented by two floatingpoint numbers
(ρ, θ), where ρ is a distance between (0,0) point and the line, and θ is the angle
between xaxis and the normal to the line. Thus, the matrix must be (the created sequence will
be) of CV_32FC2 type.
CV_HOUGH_PROBABILISTIC
 probabilistic Hough transform (more efficient in case if picture contains
a few long linear segments). It returns line segments rather than the whole lines.
Every segment is represented by starting and ending points, and the matrix must be
(the created sequence will be) of CV_32SC4 type.
CV_HOUGH_MULTI_SCALE
 multiscale variant of classical Hough transform.
The lines are encoded the same way as in CV_HOUGH_STANDARD.
threshold
.
rho
.
(The coarse distance resolution will be rho
and the accurate resolution will be (rho
/ param1
)).
theta
.
(The coarse angle resolution will be theta
and the accurate resolution will be (theta
/ param2
)).
The function cvHoughLines2
implements a few variants of Hough transform for line detection.
/* This is a standalone program. Pass an image name as a first parameter of the program. Switch between standard and probabilistic Hough transform by changing "#if 1" to "#if 0" and back */ #include <cv.h> #include <highgui.h> #include <math.h> int main(int argc, char** argv) { IplImage* src; if( argc == 2 && (src=cvLoadImage(argv[1], 0))!= 0) { IplImage* dst = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 1 ); IplImage* color_dst = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 3 ); CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0); CvSeq* lines = 0; int i; cvCanny( src, dst, 50, 200, 3 ); cvCvtColor( dst, color_dst, CV_GRAY2BGR ); #if 1 lines = cvHoughLines2( dst, storage, CV_HOUGH_STANDARD, 1, CV_PI/180, 100, 0, 0 ); for( i = 0; i < MIN(lines>total,100); i++ ) { float* line = (float*)cvGetSeqElem(lines,i); float rho = line[0]; float theta = line[1]; CvPoint pt1, pt2; double a = cos(theta), b = sin(theta); double x0 = a*rho, y0 = b*rho; pt1.x = cvRound(x0 + 1000*(b)); pt1.y = cvRound(y0 + 1000*(a)); pt2.x = cvRound(x0  1000*(b)); pt2.y = cvRound(y0  1000*(a)); cvLine( color_dst, pt1, pt2, CV_RGB(255,0,0), 3, 8 ); } #else lines = cvHoughLines2( dst, storage, CV_HOUGH_PROBABILISTIC, 1, CV_PI/180, 80, 30, 10 ); for( i = 0; i < lines>total; i++ ) { CvPoint* line = (CvPoint*)cvGetSeqElem(lines,i); cvLine( color_dst, line[0], line[1], CV_RGB(255,0,0), 3, 8 ); } #endif cvNamedWindow( "Source", 1 ); cvShowImage( "Source", src ); cvNamedWindow( "Hough", 1 ); cvShowImage( "Hough", color_dst ); cvWaitKey(0); } }
This is the sample picture the function parameters have been tuned for:
And this is the output of the above program in case of probabilistic Hough transform ("#if 0" case):
Finds circles in grayscale image using Hough transform
CvSeq* cvHoughCircles( CvArr* image, void* circle_storage, int method, double dp, double min_dist, double param1=100, double param2=100 );
cols
or rows
will contain
a number of lines detected. If circle_storage
is a matrix and the actual number of lines
exceeds the matrix size, the maximum possible number of circles is returned.
Every circle is encoded as 3 floatingpoint numbers: center coordinates (x,y) and the radius.
CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT
, which is basically 21HT, described in
[Yuen03].
CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT
it is the higher threshold of the two passed to Canny edge detector
(the lower one will be twice smaller).
CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT
it is accumulator threshold at the center detection stage.
The smaller it is, the more false circles may be detected. Still, circles, corresponding to the larger accumulator
values, will be returned first.
The function cvHoughCircles
finds circles in grayscale image using some modification of Hough transform.
#include <cv.h> #include <highgui.h> #include <math.h> int main(int argc, char** argv) { IplImage* img; if( argc == 2 && (img=cvLoadImage(argv[1], 1))!= 0) { IplImage* gray = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(img), 8, 1 ); CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0); cvCvtColor( img, gray, CV_BGR2GRAY ); cvSmooth( gray, gray, CV_GAUSSIAN, 9, 9 ); // smooth it, otherwise a lot of false circles may be detected CvSeq* circles = cvHoughCircles( gray, storage, CV_HOUGH_GRADIENT, 2, gray>height/4, 200, 100 ); int i; for( i = 0; i < c>total; i++ ) { float* p = (float*)cvGetSeqElem( c, i ); cvCircle( img, cvPoint(cvRound(p[0]),cvRound(p[1])), cvRound(p[2]), CV_RGB(255,0,0), 3, 8, 0 ); } cvNamedWindow( "cicles", 1 ); cvShowImage( "circles", img ); } return 0; }
Calculates distance to closest zero pixel for all nonzero pixels of source image
void cvDistTransform( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst, int distance_type=CV_DIST_L2, int mask_size=3, const float* mask=NULL, CvArr* labels=NULL );
CV_DIST_L1, CV_DIST_L2, CV_DIST_C
or
CV_DIST_USER
.
CV_DIST_L1
or
CV_DIST_C
the parameter is forced to 3, because 3×3 mask gives the same result
as 5×5 yet it is faster.
src
and dst
.
The function cvDistTransform
calculates the approximated distance from every binary image pixel
to the nearest zero pixel. For zero pixels the function sets the zero distance, for others it finds
the shortest path consisting of basic shifts: horizontal, vertical, diagonal or knight’s move (the
latest is available for 5×5 mask). The overal distance is calculated as a sum of these basic distances.
Because the distance function should be symmetric, all the horizontal and vertical shifts must have
the same cost (that is denoted as a
), all the diagonal shifts must have the same cost
(denoted b
), and all knight’s moves must have the same cost (denoted c
).
For CV_DIST_C
and CV_DIST_L1
types the distance is calculated precisely,
whereas for CV_DIST_L2
(Euclidian distance) the distance can be calculated only with
some relative error (5×5 mask gives more accurate results), OpenCV uses the values suggested in
[Borgefors86]:
CV_DIST_C (3×3): a=1, b=1 CV_DIST_L1 (3×3): a=1, b=2 CV_DIST_L2 (3×3): a=0.955, b=1.3693 CV_DIST_L2 (5×5): a=1, b=1.4, c=2.1969
And below are samples of distance field (black (0) pixel is in the middle of white square) in case of userdefined distance:
4.5  4  3.5  3  3.5  4  4.5 
4  3  2.5  2  2.5  3  4 
3.5  2.5  1.5  1  1.5  2.5  3.5 
3  2  1  0  1  2  3 
3.5  2.5  1.5  1  1.5  2.5  3.5 
4  3  2.5  2  2.5  3  4 
4.5  4  3.5  3  3.5  4  4.5 
4.5  3.5  3  3  3  3.5  4.5 
3.5  3  2  2  2  3  3.5 
3  2  1.5  1  1.5  2  3 
3  2  1  0  1  2  3 
3  2  1.5  1  1.5  2  3 
3.5  3  2  2  2  3  3.5 
4  3.5  3  3  3  3.5  4 
Typically, for fast coarse distance estimation CV_DIST_L2, 3×3 mask is used, and for more accurate distance estimation CV_DIST_L2, 5×5 mask is used.
When the output parameter labels
is not NULL
, for every nonzero pixel
the function also finds the nearest connected component consisting of zero pixels. The connected components
themselves are found as contours in the beginning of the function.
In this mode the processing time is still O(N), where N is the number of pixels. Thus, the function provides a very fast way to compute approximate Voronoi diagram for the binary image.
Mutidimensional histogram
typedef struct CvHistogram { int type; CvArr* bins; float thresh[CV_MAX_DIM][2]; /* for uniform histograms */ float** thresh2; /* for nonuniform histograms */ CvMatND mat; /* embedded matrix header for array histograms */ } CvHistogram;
Creates histogram
CvHistogram* cvCreateHist( int dims, int* sizes, int type, float** ranges=NULL, int uniform=1 );
CV_HIST_ARRAY
means that histogram data is
represented as an multidimensional dense array CvMatND;
CV_HIST_SPARSE
means that histogram data is represented
as a multidimensional sparse array CvSparseMat.
uniform
parameter value.
The ranges are used for when histogram is calculated or backprojected to determine, which histogram bin
corresponds to which value/tuple of values from the input image[s].
0<=i<cDims
ranges[i]
is array of two numbers: lower and upper
boundaries for the ith histogram dimension. The whole range [lower,upper] is split then
into dims[i]
equal parts to determine ith
input tuple value ranges for every histogram bin.
And if uniform=0
, then ith
element of ranges
array contains dims[i]+1
elements:
lower_{0}, upper_{0}, lower_{1}, upper_{1} == lower_{2}, ..., upper_{dims[i]1}
,
where lower_{j}
and upper_{j}
are lower and upper
boundaries of ith
input tuple value for jth
bin, respectively.
In either case, the input values that are beyond the specified range for a histogram bin, are not
counted by cvCalcHist and filled with 0 by cvCalcBackProject.
The function cvCreateHist
creates a histogram of the specified size and returns
the pointer to the created histogram. If the array ranges
is 0, the histogram
bin ranges must be specified later via The function cvSetHistBinRanges
, though
cvCalcHist and cvCalcBackProject may process 8bit images without setting
bin ranges, they assume equally spaced in 0..255 bins.
Sets bounds of histogram bins
void cvSetHistBinRanges( CvHistogram* hist, float** ranges, int uniform=1 );
The function cvSetHistBinRanges
is a standalone function for setting bin ranges
in the histogram. For more detailed description of the parameters ranges
and
uniform
see cvCalcHist function,
that can initialize the ranges as well.
Ranges for histogram bins must be set before the histogram is calculated or
backproject of the histogram is calculated.
Releases histogram
void cvReleaseHist( CvHistogram** hist );
The function cvReleaseHist
releases the histogram (header and the data).
The pointer to histogram is cleared by the function. If *hist
pointer is already
NULL
, the function does nothing.
Clears histogram
void cvClearHist( CvHistogram* hist );
The function cvClearHist
sets all histogram bins to 0 in case of dense histogram and
removes all histogram bins in case of sparse array.
Makes a histogram out of array
CvHistogram* cvMakeHistHeaderForArray( int dims, int* sizes, CvHistogram* hist, float* data, float** ranges=NULL, int uniform=1 );
The function cvMakeHistHeaderForArray
initializes the histogram, which header and
bins are allocated by user. No cvReleaseHist need to be called afterwards.
Only dense histograms can be initialized this way. The function returns hist
.
Queries value of histogram bin
#define cvQueryHistValue_1D( hist, idx0 ) \ cvGetReal1D( (hist)>bins, (idx0) ) #define cvQueryHistValue_2D( hist, idx0, idx1 ) \ cvGetReal2D( (hist)>bins, (idx0), (idx1) ) #define cvQueryHistValue_3D( hist, idx0, idx1, idx2 ) \ cvGetReal3D( (hist)>bins, (idx0), (idx1), (idx2) ) #define cvQueryHistValue_nD( hist, idx ) \ cvGetRealND( (hist)>bins, (idx) )
The macros cvQueryHistValue_*D return the value of the specified bin of 1D, 2D, 3D or ND histogram. In case of sparse histogram the function returns 0, if the bin is not present in the histogram, and no new bin is created.
Returns pointer to histogram bin
#define cvGetHistValue_1D( hist, idx0 ) \ ((float*)(cvPtr1D( (hist)>bins, (idx0), 0 )) #define cvGetHistValue_2D( hist, idx0, idx1 ) \ ((float*)(cvPtr2D( (hist)>bins, (idx0), (idx1), 0 )) #define cvGetHistValue_3D( hist, idx0, idx1, idx2 ) \ ((float*)(cvPtr3D( (hist)>bins, (idx0), (idx1), (idx2), 0 )) #define cvGetHistValue_nD( hist, idx ) \ ((float*)(cvPtrND( (hist)>bins, (idx), 0 ))
The macros cvGetHistValue_*D return pointer to the specified bin of 1D, 2D, 3D or ND histogram. In case of sparse histogram the function creates a new bin and sets it to 0, unless it exists already.
Finds minimum and maximum histogram bins
void cvGetMinMaxHistValue( const CvHistogram* hist, float* min_value, float* max_value, int* min_idx=NULL, int* max_idx=NULL );
The function cvGetMinMaxHistValue
finds the minimum and maximum histogram bins and
their positions. Any of output arguments is optional.
Among several extremums with the same value the ones with minimum index (in lexicographical order)
In case of several maximums or minimums the earliest in lexicographical order
extrema locations are returned.
Normalizes histogram
void cvNormalizeHist( CvHistogram* hist, double factor );
The function cvNormalizeHist
normalizes the histogram bins by scaling them,
such that the sum of the bins becomes equal to factor
.
Thresholds histogram
void cvThreshHist( CvHistogram* hist, double threshold );
The function cvThreshHist
clears histogram bins
that are below the specified threshold.
Compares two dense histograms
double cvCompareHist( const CvHistogram* hist1, const CvHistogram* hist2, int method );
The function cvCompareHist
compares two dense histograms using
the specified method as following
(H_{1}
denotes the first histogram, H_{2}
 the second):
Correlation (method=CV_COMP_CORREL): d(H_{1},H_{2})=sum_{I}(H'_{1}(I)•H'_{2}(I))/sqrt(sum_{I}[H'_{1}(I)^{2}]•sum_{I}[H'_{2}(I)^{2}]) where H'_{k}(I)=H_{k}(I)1/N•sum_{J}H_{k}(J) (N=number of histogram bins) ChiSquare (method=CV_COMP_CHISQR): d(H_{1},H_{2})=sum_{I}[(H_{1}(I)H_{2}(I))/(H_{1}(I)+H_{2}(I))] Intersection (method=CV_COMP_INTERSECT): d(H_{1},H_{2})=sum_{I}max(H_{1}(I),H_{2}(I)) Bhattacharyya distance (method=CV_COMP_BHATTACHARYYA): d(H_{1},H_{2})=sqrt(1sum_{I}(sqrt(H_{1}(I)•H_{2}(I))))
The function returns d(H_{1},H_{2})
value.
Note: the method CV_COMP_BHATTACHARYYA
only works with normalized histograms.
To compare sparse histogram or more general sparse configurations of weighted points, consider using cvCalcEMD2 function.
Copies histogram
void cvCopyHist( const CvHistogram* src, CvHistogram** dst );
The function cvCopyHist
makes a copy of the histogram. If the second histogram
pointer *dst
is NULL, a new histogram of the same size as src
is created.
Otherwise, both histograms must have equal types and sizes.
Then the function copies the source histogram bins values to destination histogram and
sets the same bin values ranges as in src
.
Calculates histogram of image(s)
void cvCalcHist( IplImage** image, CvHistogram* hist, int accumulate=0, const CvArr* mask=NULL );
The function cvCalcHist
calculates the histogram of one or more singlechannel images.
The elements of a tuple that is used to increment a histogram bin are taken at the same
location from the corresponding input images.
#include <cv.h> #include <highgui.h> int main( int argc, char** argv ) { IplImage* src; if( argc == 2 && (src=cvLoadImage(argv[1], 1))!= 0) { IplImage* h_plane = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 1 ); IplImage* s_plane = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 1 ); IplImage* v_plane = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 1 ); IplImage* planes[] = { h_plane, s_plane }; IplImage* hsv = cvCreateImage( cvGetSize(src), 8, 3 ); int h_bins = 30, s_bins = 32; int hist_size[] = {h_bins, s_bins}; float h_ranges[] = { 0, 180 }; /* hue varies from 0 (~0°red) to 180 (~360°red again) */ float s_ranges[] = { 0, 255 }; /* saturation varies from 0 (blackgraywhite) to 255 (pure spectrum color) */ float* ranges[] = { h_ranges, s_ranges }; int scale = 10; IplImage* hist_img = cvCreateImage( cvSize(h_bins*scale,s_bins*scale), 8, 3 ); CvHistogram* hist; float max_value = 0; int h, s; cvCvtColor( src, hsv, CV_BGR2HSV ); cvCvtPixToPlane( hsv, h_plane, s_plane, v_plane, 0 ); hist = cvCreateHist( 2, hist_size, CV_HIST_ARRAY, ranges, 1 ); cvCalcHist( planes, hist, 0, 0 ); cvGetMinMaxHistValue( hist, 0, &max_value, 0, 0 ); cvZero( hist_img ); for( h = 0; h < h_bins; h++ ) { for( s = 0; s < s_bins; s++ ) { float bin_val = cvQueryHistValue_2D( hist, h, s ); int intensity = cvRound(bin_val*255/max_value); cvRectangle( hist_img, cvPoint( h*scale, s*scale ), cvPoint( (h+1)*scale  1, (s+1)*scale  1), CV_RGB(intensity,intensity,intensity), /* graw a grayscale histogram. if you have idea how to do it nicer let us know */ CV_FILLED ); } } cvNamedWindow( "Source", 1 ); cvShowImage( "Source", src ); cvNamedWindow( "HS Histogram", 1 ); cvShowImage( "HS Histogram", hist_img ); cvWaitKey(0); } }
Calculates back projection
void cvCalcBackProject( IplImage** image, CvArr* back_project, const CvHistogram* hist );
The function cvCalcBackProject
calculates the back project of the histogram. For
each tuple of pixels at the same position of all input singlechannel
images the function puts the value of the histogram bin, corresponding to the tuple,
to the destination image. In terms of statistics, the value of each output image pixel
is probability of the observed tuple given the distribution (histogram).
For example, to find a red object in the picture, one may do the following:
Locates a template within image by histogram comparison
void cvCalcBackProjectPatch( IplImage** image, CvArr* dst, CvSize patch_size, CvHistogram* hist, int method, float factor );
The function cvCalcBackProjectPatch
calculates back projection by comparing
histograms of the source image patches with the given histogram. Taking
measurement results from some image at each location over ROI creates an array
image
. These results might be one or more of hue, x
derivative, y
derivative,
Laplacian filter, oriented Gabor filter, etc. Each measurement output is
collected into its own separate image. The image
image array is a collection of
these measurement images. A multidimensional histogram hist
is constructed by
sampling from the image
image array. The final histogram is normalized. The hist
histogram has as many dimensions as the number of elements in image
array.
Each new image is measured and then converted into an image
image array over a
chosen ROI. Histograms are taken from this image
image in an area covered by a
"patch" with anchor at center as shown in the picture below.
The histogram is normalized using the parameter norm_factor
so that it
may be compared with hist
. The calculated histogram is compared to the model
histogram; hist
uses The function cvCompareHist
with the comparison method=method
).
The resulting output is placed at the location corresponding to the patch anchor in
the probability image dst
. This process is repeated as the patch is slid over
the ROI. Iterative histogram update by subtracting trailing pixels covered by the patch and adding newly
covered pixels to the histogram can save a lot of operations, though it is not implemented yet.
Divides one histogram by another
void cvCalcProbDensity( const CvHistogram* hist1, const CvHistogram* hist2, CvHistogram* dst_hist, double scale=255 );
The function cvCalcProbDensity
calculates the object probability density from
the two histograms as:
dist_hist(I)=0 if hist1(I)==0 scale if hist1(I)!=0 && hist2(I)>hist1(I) hist2(I)*scale/hist1(I) if hist1(I)!=0 && hist2(I)<=hist1(I)
So the destination histogram bins are within less than scale.
Equalizes histogram of grayscale image
void cvEqualizeHist( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst );
src
.
The function cvEqualizeHist
equalizes histogram of the input image
using the following algorithm:
1. calculate histogram H for src. 2. normalize histogram, so that the sum of histogram bins is 255. 3. compute integral of the histogram: H’(i) = sum_{0≤j≤i}H(j) 4. transform the image using H’ as a lookup table: dst(x,y)=H’(src(x,y))
The algorithm normalizes brightness and increases contrast of the image.
Compares template against overlapped image regions
void cvMatchTemplate( const CvArr* image, const CvArr* templ, CvArr* result, int method );
image
is
W
×H
and templ
is w
×h
then result
must
be Ww+1
×Hh+1
.
The function cvMatchTemplate
is similiar to cvCalcBackProjectPatch.
It slids through image
, compares overlapped patches of size w
×h
against templ
using the specified method and stores the comparison results
to result
. Here are the formulae for the different comparison methods one may use
(I
denotes image, T
 template, R
 result.
The summation is done over template and/or the image patch: x'=0..w1, y'=0..h1
):
method=CV_TM_SQDIFF: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T(x',y')I(x+x',y+y')]^{2} method=CV_TM_SQDIFF_NORMED: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T(x',y')I(x+x',y+y')]^{2}/sqrt[sum_{x',y'}T(x',y')^{2}•sum_{x',y'}I(x+x',y+y')^{2}] method=CV_TM_CCORR: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T(x',y')•I(x+x',y+y')] method=CV_TM_CCORR_NORMED: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T(x',y')•I(x+x',y+y')]/sqrt[sum_{x',y'}T(x',y')^{2}•sum_{x',y'}I(x+x',y+y')^{2}] method=CV_TM_CCOEFF: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T'(x',y')•I'(x+x',y+y')], where T'(x',y')=T(x',y')  1/(w•h)•sum_{x",y"}T(x",y") I'(x+x',y+y')=I(x+x',y+y')  1/(w•h)•sum_{x",y"}I(x+x",y+y") method=CV_TM_CCOEFF_NORMED: R(x,y)=sum_{x',y'}[T'(x',y')•I'(x+x',y+y')]/sqrt[sum_{x',y'}T'(x',y')^{2}•sum_{x',y'}I'(x+x',y+y')^{2}]After the function finishes comparison, the best matches can be found as global minimums (CV_TM_SQDIFF*) or maximums (CV_TM_CCORR* and CV_TM_CCOEFF*) using cvMinMaxLoc function. In case of color image and template summation in both numerator and each sum in denominator is done over all the channels (and separate mean values are used for each channel).
Compares two shapes
double cvMatchShapes( const void* object1, const void* object2, int method, double parameter=0 );
The function cvMatchShapes
compares two shapes. The 3 implemented methods all
use Hu moments (see cvGetHuMoments)
(A
~ object1
, B
 object2
):
method=CV_CONTOUR_MATCH_I1: I_{1}(A,B)=sum_{i=1..7}abs(1/m^{A}_{i}  1/m^{B}_{i}) method=CV_CONTOUR_MATCH_I2: I_{2}(A,B)=sum_{i=1..7}abs(m^{A}_{i}  m^{B}_{i}) method=CV_CONTOUR_MATCH_I3: I_{3}(A,B)=sum_{i=1..7}abs(m^{A}_{i}  m^{B}_{i})/abs(m^{A}_{i}) where m^{A}_{i}=sign(h^{A}_{i})•log(h^{A}_{i}), m^{B}_{i}=sign(h^{B}_{i})•log(h^{B}_{i}), h^{A}_{i}, h^{B}_{i}  Hu moments of A and B, respectively.
Computes "minimal work" distance between two weighted point configurations
float cvCalcEMD2( const CvArr* signature1, const CvArr* signature2, int distance_type, CvDistanceFunction distance_func=NULL, const CvArr* cost_matrix=NULL, CvArr* flow=NULL, float* lower_bound=NULL, void* userdata=NULL ); typedef float (*CvDistanceFunction)(const float* f1, const float* f2, void* userdata);
size1
×dims+1
floatingpoint matrix.
Each row stores the point weight followed by the point coordinates. The matrix is allowed to
have a single column (weights only) if the userdefined cost matrix is used.
signature1
, though the number
of rows may be different. The total weights may be different, in this case an extra "dummy" point
is added to either signature1
or signature2
.
CV_DIST_L1, CV_DIST_L2
, and CV_DIST_C
stand for one of
the standard metrics; CV_DIST_USER
means that a userdefined function distance_func
or
precalculated cost_matrix
is used.
size1
×size2
cost matrix.
At least one of cost_matrix
and distance_func
must be NULL.
Also, if a cost matrix is used, lower boundary (see below) can not be calculated,
because it needs a metric function.
size1
×size2
flow matrix: flow_{ij}
is a flow
from ith point of signature1
to jth point of signature2
*lower_bound
.
If the calculated distance between mass centers is greater or equal to *lower_bound
(it means that the signatures are far enough) the function does not calculate EMD.
In any case *lower_bound
is set to the calculated distance between mass centers
on return. Thus, if user wants to calculate both distance between mass centers and EMD,
*lower_bound
should be set to 0.
The function cvCalcEMD2
computes earth mover distance and/or a lower boundary of
the distance between the two weighted point configurations.
One of the application desctibed in [RubnerSept98] is multidimensional
histogram comparison for image retrieval.
EMD is a transportation problem that is solved using some modification of simplex algorithm,
thus the complexity is exponential in the worst case, though, it is much faster in average.
In case of a real metric the lower boundary can be calculated even faster (using lineartime algorithm)
and it can be used to determine roughly whether the two
signatures are far enough so that they cannot relate to the same object.
Approximates Freeman chain(s) with polygonal curve
CvSeq* cvApproxChains( CvSeq* src_seq, CvMemStorage* storage, int method=CV_CHAIN_APPROX_SIMPLE, double parameter=0, int minimal_perimeter=0, int recursive=0 );
minimal_perimeter
. Other chains are removed from the resulting structure.
src_seq
by h_next
or v_next links
. If 0, the single chain is
approximated.
This is a standalone approximation routine. The function cvApproxChains
works
exactly in the same way as cvFindContours with the corresponding approximation flag.
The function returns pointer to the first resultant contour.
Other approximated contours, if any, can be accessed via v_next
or
h_next
fields of the returned structure.
Initializes chain reader
void cvStartReadChainPoints( CvChain* chain, CvChainPtReader* reader );
The function cvStartReadChainPoints
initializes a special reader
(see Dynamic Data Structures
for more information on sets and sequences).
Gets next chain point
CvPoint cvReadChainPoint( CvChainPtReader* reader );
The function cvReadChainPoint
returns the current chain point and updates the reader position.
Approximates polygonal curve(s) with desired precision
CvSeq* cvApproxPoly( const void* src_seq, int header_size, CvMemStorage* storage, int method, double parameter, int parameter2=0 );
CV_POLY_APPROX_DP
is supported, that
corresponds to DouglasPeucker algorithm.
CV_POLY_APPROX_DP
it is a desired approximation accuracy.
src_seq
is sequence it means whether the single sequence should
be approximated or all sequences on the same level or below src_seq
(see cvFindContours for
description of hierarchical contour structures). And if src_seq
is array (CvMat*) of
points, the parameter specifies whether the curve is closed (parameter2
!=0) or
not (parameter2
=0).
The function cvApproxPoly
approximates one or more curves and returns the approximation
result[s]. In case of multiple curves approximation the resultant tree will have the same structure as
the input one (1:1 correspondence).
Calculates upright bounding rectangle of point set
CvRect cvBoundingRect( CvArr* points, int update=0 );
CvMat
) of points.
contour
:
rect
field of the contour header.
rect
field of the contour header.
The function cvBoundingRect
returns the upright bounding rectangle for 2d point set.
Calculates area of the whole contour or contour section
double cvContourArea( const CvArr* contour, CvSlice slice=CV_WHOLE_SEQ );
The function cvContourArea
calculates area of the whole contour or contour section. In the latter
case the total area bounded by the contour arc and the chord connecting the 2 selected points is calculated as
shown on the picture below:
NOTE: Orientation of the contour affects the area sign, thus the function may return
negative
result. Use fabs()
function from C runtime to get the absolute value of
area.
Calculates contour perimeter or curve length
double cvArcLength( const void* curve, CvSlice slice=CV_WHOLE_SEQ, int is_closed=1 );
The function cvArcLength
calculates length or curve as sum of lengths of segments
between subsequent points
Creates hierarchical representation of contour
CvContourTree* cvCreateContourTree( const CvSeq* contour, CvMemStorage* storage, double threshold );
The function cvCreateContourTree
creates binary tree representation for the input
contour
and returns the pointer to its root. If the parameter threshold
is less than or equal to 0, the function creates full binary tree
representation. If the threshold is greater than 0, the function creates
representation with the precision threshold
: if the vertices with the
interceptive area of its base line are less than threshold
, the tree should not
be built any further. The function returns the created tree.
Restores contour from tree
CvSeq* cvContourFromContourTree( const CvContourTree* tree, CvMemStorage* storage, CvTermCriteria criteria );
The function cvContourFromContourTree
restores the contour from its binary tree
representation. The parameter criteria
determines the accuracy and/or the
number of tree levels used for reconstruction, so it is possible to build approximated contour.
The function returns reconstructed contour.
Compares two contours using their tree representations
double cvMatchContourTrees( const CvContourTree* tree1, const CvContourTree* tree2, int method, double threshold );
CV_CONTOUR_TREES_MATCH_I1
is supported.
The function cvMatchContourTrees
calculates the value of the matching measure for
two contour trees. The similarity measure is calculated level by level from the
binary tree roots. If at the certain level difference between contours becomes less than threshold
,
the reconstruction process is interrupted and the current difference is returned.
Finds bounding rectangle for two given rectangles
CvRect cvMaxRect( const CvRect* rect1, const CvRect* rect2 );
The function cvMaxRect
finds minimum area rectangle that contains both input rectangles inside:
Rotated 2D box
typedef struct CvBox2D { CvPoint2D32f center; /* center of the box */ CvSize2D32f size; /* box width and length */ float angle; /* angle between the horizontal axis and the first side (i.e. length) in radians */ } CvBox2D;
Initializes point sequence header from a point vector
CvSeq* cvPointSeqFromMat( int seq_kind, const CvArr* mat, CvContour* contour_header, CvSeqBlock* block );
CV_SEQ_KIND_CURVE
),
closed curve (CV_SEQ_KIND_CURVE+CV_SEQ_FLAG_CLOSED
) etc.
CV_32SC2
or CV_32FC2
.
The function cvPointSeqFromMat
initializes sequence header to create a "virtual" sequence which
elements reside in the specified matrix. No data is copied. The initialized sequence header may be passed to
any function that takes a point sequence on input. No extra elements could be added to the sequence,
but some may be removed. The function is a specialized variant of
cvMakeSeqHeaderForArray and uses the latter internally.
It returns pointer to the initialized contour header. Note that the bounding rectangle (field rect
of
CvContour
strucuture is not initialized by the function. If you need one, use
cvBoundingRect.
Here is the simple usage example.
CvContour header; CvSeqBlock block; CvMat* vector = cvCreateMat( 1, 3, CV_32SC2 ); CV_MAT_ELEM( *vector, CvPoint, 0, 0 ) = cvPoint(100,100); CV_MAT_ELEM( *vector, CvPoint, 0, 1 ) = cvPoint(100,200); CV_MAT_ELEM( *vector, CvPoint, 0, 2 ) = cvPoint(200,100); IplImage* img = cvCreateImage( cvSize(300,300), 8, 3 ); cvZero(img); cvDrawContours( img, cvPointSeqFromMat(CV_SEQ_KIND_CURVE+CV_SEQ_FLAG_CLOSED, vector, &header, &block), CV_RGB(255,0,0), CV_RGB(255,0,0), 0, 3, 8, cvPoint(0,0));
Rotated 2D box
typedef struct CvBox2D { CvPoint2D32f center; /* center of the box */ CvSize2D32f size; /* box width and length */ float angle; /* angle between the horizontal axis and the first side (i.e. length) in radians */ } CvBox2D;
Finds box vertices
void cvBoxPoints( CvBox2D box, CvPoint2D32f pt[4] );
The function cvBoxPoints
calculates vertices of the input 2d box.
Here is the function code:
void cvBoxPoints( CvBox2D box, CvPoint2D32f pt[4] ) { float a = (float)cos(box.angle)*0.5f; float b = (float)sin(box.angle)*0.5f; pt[0].x = box.center.x  a*box.size.height  b*box.size.width; pt[0].y = box.center.y + b*box.size.height  a*box.size.width; pt[1].x = box.center.x + a*box.size.height  b*box.size.width; pt[1].y = box.center.y  b*box.size.height  a*box.size.width; pt[2].x = 2*box.center.x  pt[0].x; pt[2].y = 2*box.center.y  pt[0].y; pt[3].x = 2*box.center.x  pt[1].x; pt[3].y = 2*box.center.y  pt[1].y; }
Fits ellipse to set of 2D points
CvBox2D cvFitEllipse2( const CvArr* points );
The function cvFitEllipse
calculates ellipse that fits best (in leastsquares sense)
to a set of 2D points. The meaning of the returned structure fields is similar to those
in cvEllipse except that size
stores the full lengths of the ellipse axises,
not halflengths
Fits line to 2D or 3D point set
void cvFitLine( const CvArr* points, int dist_type, double param, double reps, double aeps, float* line );
C
) for some types of distances, if 0 then some optimal value is chosen.
(vx, vy, x0, y0)
where (vx, vy)
is a normalized vector collinear to the line and (x0, y0)
is some point on the line.
In case of 3D fitting it is array of 6 floats (vx, vy, vz, x0, y0, z0)
where (vx, vy, vz)
is a normalized vector collinear to the line and (x0, y0, z0)
is some point on the line.
The function cvFitLine
fits line to 2D or 3D point set by minimizing sum_{i}ρ(r_{i}),
where r_{i} is distance between ith point and the line and ρ(r) is a distance function, one of:
dist_type=CV_DIST_L2 (L_{2}): ρ(r)=r^{2}/2 (the simplest and the fastest leastsquares method) dist_type=CV_DIST_L1 (L_{1}): ρ(r)=r dist_type=CV_DIST_L12 (L_{1}L_{2}): ρ(r)=2•[sqrt(1+r^{2}/2)  1] dist_type=CV_DIST_FAIR (Fair): ρ(r)=C^{2}•[r/C  log(1 + r/C)], C=1.3998 dist_type=CV_DIST_WELSCH (Welsch): ρ(r)=C^{2}/2•[1  exp((r/C)^{2})], C=2.9846 dist_type=CV_DIST_HUBER (Huber): ρ(r)= r^{2}/2, if r < C C•(rC/2), otherwise; C=1.345
Finds convex hull of point set
CvSeq* cvConvexHull2( const CvArr* input, void* hull_storage=NULL, int orientation=CV_CLOCKWISE, int return_points=0 );
CV_CLOCKWISE
or CV_COUNTER_CLOCKWISE
.
hull_storage
is array, or pointers if hull_storage
is memory storage.
The function cvConvexHull2
finds convex hull of 2D point set using Sklansky’s algorithm.
If hull_storage
is memory storage, the function creates a sequence containing the hull points or
pointers to them, depending on return_points
value and returns the sequence on output.
#include "cv.h" #include "highgui.h" #include <stdlib.h> #define ARRAY 0 /* switch between array/sequence method by replacing 0<=>1 */ void main( int argc, char** argv ) { IplImage* img = cvCreateImage( cvSize( 500, 500 ), 8, 3 ); cvNamedWindow( "hull", 1 ); #if !ARRAY CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(); #endif for(;;) { int i, count = rand()%100 + 1, hullcount; CvPoint pt0; #if !ARRAY CvSeq* ptseq = cvCreateSeq( CV_SEQ_KIND_GENERICCV_32SC2, sizeof(CvContour), sizeof(CvPoint), storage ); CvSeq* hull; for( i = 0; i < count; i++ ) { pt0.x = rand() % (img>width/2) + img>width/4; pt0.y = rand() % (img>height/2) + img>height/4; cvSeqPush( ptseq, &pt0 ); } hull = cvConvexHull2( ptseq, 0, CV_CLOCKWISE, 0 ); hullcount = hull>total; #else CvPoint* points = (CvPoint*)malloc( count * sizeof(points[0])); int* hull = (int*)malloc( count * sizeof(hull[0])); CvMat point_mat = cvMat( 1, count, CV_32SC2, points ); CvMat hull_mat = cvMat( 1, count, CV_32SC1, hull ); for( i = 0; i < count; i++ ) { pt0.x = rand() % (img>width/2) + img>width/4; pt0.y = rand() % (img>height/2) + img>height/4; points[i] = pt0; } cvConvexHull2( &point_mat, &hull_mat, CV_CLOCKWISE, 0 ); hullcount = hull_mat.cols; #endif cvZero( img ); for( i = 0; i < count; i++ ) { #if !ARRAY pt0 = *CV_GET_SEQ_ELEM( CvPoint, ptseq, i ); #else pt0 = points[i]; #endif cvCircle( img, pt0, 2, CV_RGB( 255, 0, 0 ), CV_FILLED ); } #if !ARRAY pt0 = **CV_GET_SEQ_ELEM( CvPoint*, hull, hullcount  1 ); #else pt0 = points[hull[hullcount1]]; #endif for( i = 0; i < hullcount; i++ ) { #if !ARRAY CvPoint pt = **CV_GET_SEQ_ELEM( CvPoint*, hull, i ); #else CvPoint pt = points[hull[i]]; #endif cvLine( img, pt0, pt, CV_RGB( 0, 255, 0 )); pt0 = pt; } cvShowImage( "hull", img ); int key = cvWaitKey(0); if( key == 27 ) // 'ESC' break; #if !ARRAY cvClearMemStorage( storage ); #else free( points ); free( hull ); #endif } }
Tests contour convex
int cvCheckContourConvexity( const CvArr* contour );
The function cvCheckContourConvexity
tests whether the input contour is convex or not.
The contour must be simple, i.e. without selfintersections.
Structure describing a single contour convexity detect
typedef struct CvConvexityDefect { CvPoint* start; /* point of the contour where the defect begins */ CvPoint* end; /* point of the contour where the defect ends */ CvPoint* depth_point; /* the farthest from the convex hull point within the defect */ float depth; /* distance between the farthest point and the convex hull */ } CvConvexityDefect;
Finds convexity defects of contour
CvSeq* cvConvexityDefects( const CvArr* contour, const CvArr* convexhull, CvMemStorage* storage=NULL );
return_points
parameter in cvConvexHull2
should be 0.
The function cvConvexityDefects
finds all convexity defects of the input contour
and returns a sequence of the CvConvexityDefect structures.
Point in contour test
double cvPointPolygonTest( const CvArr* contour, CvPoint2D32f pt, int measure_dist );
The function cvPointPolygonTest
determines whether the point is inside contour, outside, or lies
on an edge (or coinsides with a vertex). It returns positive, negative or zero value, correspondingly.
When measure_dist=0
, the return value is +1, 1 and 0, respectively.
When
measure_dist≠0
, it is a signed distance between the point and the nearest contour edge.
Here is the sample output of the function, where each image pixel is tested against the contour.
MinAreaRect2
Finds circumscribed rectangle of minimal area for given 2D point set
CvBox2D cvMinAreaRect2( const CvArr* points, CvMemStorage* storage=NULL );
 points
 Sequence or array of points.
 storage
 Optional temporary memory storage.
The function cvMinAreaRect2
finds a circumscribed rectangle of the minimal area for 2D point set
by building convex hull for the set and applying rotating calipers technique to the hull.
Picture. Minimalarea bounding rectangle for contour
MinEnclosingCircle
Finds circumscribed circle of minimal area for given 2D point set
int cvMinEnclosingCircle( const CvArr* points, CvPoint2D32f* center, float* radius );
 points
 Sequence or array of 2D points.
 center
 Output parameter. The center of the enclosing circle.
 radius
 Output parameter. The radius of the enclosing circle.
The function cvMinEnclosingCircle
finds the minimal circumscribed circle for
2D point set using iterative algorithm. It returns nonzero if the resultant circle contains all the
input points and zero otherwise (i.e. algorithm failed).
CalcPGH
Calculates pairwise geometrical histogram for contour
void cvCalcPGH( const CvSeq* contour, CvHistogram* hist );
 contour
 Input contour. Currently, only integer point coordinates are allowed.
 hist
 Calculated histogram; must be twodimensional.
The function cvCalcPGH
calculates 2D pairwise geometrical histogram (PGH), described in
[Iivarinen97], for the contour.
The algorithm considers every pair of the contour edges. The angle
between the edges and the minimum/maximum distances are determined for every
pair. To do this each of the edges in turn is taken as the base, while the
function loops through all the other edges. When the base edge and any other
edge are considered, the minimum and maximum distances from the points on the
nonbase edge and line of the base edge are selected. The angle between the
edges defines the row of the histogram in which all the bins that correspond to
the distance between the calculated minimum and maximum distances are
incremented (that is, the histogram is transposed relatively to [Iivarninen97] definition).
The histogram can be used for contour matching.
Planar Subdivisions
CvSubdiv2D
Planar subdivision
#define CV_SUBDIV2D_FIELDS() \
CV_GRAPH_FIELDS() \
int quad_edges; \
int is_geometry_valid; \
CvSubdiv2DEdge recent_edge; \
CvPoint2D32f topleft; \
CvPoint2D32f bottomright;
typedef struct CvSubdiv2D
{
CV_SUBDIV2D_FIELDS()
}
CvSubdiv2D;
Planar subdivision is a subdivision of a plane into a set of nonoverlapped regions (facets) that
cover the whole plane. The above structure describes a subdivision built on 2d point set, where
the points are linked together and form a planar graph, which, together with a few edges connecting
exterior subdivision points (namely, convex hull points) with infinity, subdivides a plane into facets
by its edges.
For every subdivision there exists dual subdivision there facets and points (subdivision vertices)
swap their roles, that is, a facet is treated as a vertex (called virtual point below) of dual subdivision
and the original subdivision vertices become facets. On the picture below original subdivision is marked with solid lines
and dual subdivision with dot lines
OpenCV subdivides plane into triangles using Delaunay’s algorithm.
Subdivision is built iteratively starting from a dummy triangle that includes
all the subdivision points for sure.
In this case the dual subdivision is Voronoi diagram of input 2d point set.
The subdivisions can be used for 3d piecewise transformation of a plane, morphing, fast location of
points on the plane, building special graphs (such as NNG,RNG) etc.
CvQuadEdge2D
Quadedge of planar subdivision
/* one of edges within quadedge, lower 2 bits is index (0..3)
and upper bits are quadedge pointer */
typedef long CvSubdiv2DEdge;
/* quadedge structure fields */
#define CV_QUADEDGE2D_FIELDS() \
int flags; \
struct CvSubdiv2DPoint* pt[4]; \
CvSubdiv2DEdge next[4];
typedef struct CvQuadEdge2D
{
CV_QUADEDGE2D_FIELDS()
}
CvQuadEdge2D;
Quadedge is a basic element of subdivision, it contains four edges (e, eRot and reversed e & eRot):
CvSubdiv2DPoint
Point of original or dual subdivision
#define CV_SUBDIV2D_POINT_FIELDS()\
int flags; \
CvSubdiv2DEdge first; \
CvPoint2D32f pt;
#define CV_SUBDIV2D_VIRTUAL_POINT_FLAG (1 << 30)
typedef struct CvSubdiv2DPoint
{
CV_SUBDIV2D_POINT_FIELDS()
}
CvSubdiv2DPoint;
Subdiv2DGetEdge
Returns one of edges related to given
CvSubdiv2DEdge cvSubdiv2DGetEdge( CvSubdiv2DEdge edge, CvNextEdgeType type );
#define cvSubdiv2DNextEdge( edge ) cvSubdiv2DGetEdge( edge, CV_NEXT_AROUND_ORG )
 edge
 Subdivision edge (not a quadedge)
 type
 Specifies, which of related edges to return, one of:
 CV_NEXT_AROUND_ORG  next around the edge origin (
eOnext
on the picture above if e
is the input edge)
 CV_NEXT_AROUND_DST  next around the edge vertex (
eDnext
)
 CV_PREV_AROUND_ORG  previous around the edge origin (reversed
eRnext
)
 CV_PREV_AROUND_DST  previous around the edge destination (reversed
eLnext
)
 CV_NEXT_AROUND_LEFT  next around the left facet (
eLnext
)
 CV_NEXT_AROUND_RIGHT  next around the right facet (
eRnext
)
 CV_PREV_AROUND_LEFT  previous around the left facet (reversed
eOnext
)
 CV_PREV_AROUND_RIGHT  previous around the right facet (reversed
eDnext
)
The function cvSubdiv2DGetEdge
returns one the edges related to the input edge.
Subdiv2DRotateEdge
Returns another edge of the same quadedge
CvSubdiv2DEdge cvSubdiv2DRotateEdge( CvSubdiv2DEdge edge, int rotate );
 edge
 Subdivision edge (not a quadedge)
 type
 Specifies, which of edges of the same quadedge as the input one to return, one of:
 0  the input edge (
e
on the picture above if e
is the input edge)
 1  the rotated edge (
eRot
)
 2  the reversed edge (reversed
e
(in green))
 3  the reversed rotated edge (reversed
eRot
(in green))
The function cvSubdiv2DRotateEdge
returns one the edges of the same quadedge as the input edge.
Subdiv2DEdgeOrg
Returns edge origin
CvSubdiv2DPoint* cvSubdiv2DEdgeOrg( CvSubdiv2DEdge edge );
 edge
 Subdivision edge (not a quadedge)
The function cvSubdiv2DEdgeOrg
returns the edge origin. The returned pointer may be NULL if
the edge is from dual subdivision and the virtual point coordinates are not calculated yet.
The virtual points can be calculated using function cvCalcSubdivVoronoi2D.
Subdiv2DEdgeDst
Returns edge destination
CvSubdiv2DPoint* cvSubdiv2DEdgeDst( CvSubdiv2DEdge edge );
 edge
 Subdivision edge (not a quadedge)
The function cvSubdiv2DEdgeDst
returns the edge destination. The returned pointer may be NULL if
the edge is from dual subdivision and the virtual point coordinates are not calculated yet.
The virtual points can be calculated using function cvCalcSubdivVoronoi2D.
CreateSubdivDelaunay2D
Creates empty Delaunay triangulation
CvSubdiv2D* cvCreateSubdivDelaunay2D( CvRect rect, CvMemStorage* storage );
 rect
 Rectangle that includes all the 2d points that are to be added to subdivision.
 storage
 Container for subdivision.
The function cvCreateSubdivDelaunay2D
creates an empty Delaunay subdivision,
where 2d points can be added further using function cvSubdivDelaunay2DInsert.
All the points to be added must be within the specified rectangle, otherwise a runtime error will be
raised.
SubdivDelaunay2DInsert
Inserts a single point to Delaunay triangulation
CvSubdiv2DPoint* cvSubdivDelaunay2DInsert( CvSubdiv2D* subdiv, CvPoint2D32f pt);
 subdiv
 Delaunay subdivision created by function cvCreateSubdivDelaunay2D.
 pt
 Inserted point.
The function cvSubdivDelaunay2DInsert
inserts a single point to subdivision and
modifies the subdivision topology appropriately.
If a points with same coordinates exists already, no new points is added.
The function returns pointer to the allocated point.
No virtual points coordinates is calculated at this stage.
Subdiv2DLocate
Inserts a single point to Delaunay triangulation
CvSubdiv2DPointLocation cvSubdiv2DLocate( CvSubdiv2D* subdiv, CvPoint2D32f pt,
CvSubdiv2DEdge* edge,
CvSubdiv2DPoint** vertex=NULL );
 subdiv
 Delaunay or another subdivision.
 pt
 The point to locate.
 edge
 The output edge the point falls onto or right to.
 vertex
 Optional output vertex double pointer the input point coinsides with.
The function cvSubdiv2DLocate
locates input point within subdivision.
There are 5 cases:
 point falls into some facet. The function returns CV_PTLOC_INSIDE and
*edge
will contain one of edges of the facet.
 point falls onto the edge. The function returns CV_PTLOC_ON_EDGE and
*edge
will contain this edge.
 point coinsides with one of subdivision vertices. The function returns CV_PTLOC_VERTEX and
*vertex
will contain pointer to the vertex.
 point is outside the subdivsion reference rectangle. The function returns CV_PTLOC_OUTSIDE_RECT and no pointers is filled.
 one of input arguments is invalid. Runtime error is raised or, if silent or "parent" error processing mode
is selected, CV_PTLOC_ERROR is returnd.
FindNearestPoint2D
Finds the closest subdivision vertex to given point
CvSubdiv2DPoint* cvFindNearestPoint2D( CvSubdiv2D* subdiv, CvPoint2D32f pt );
 subdiv
 Delaunay or another subdivision.
 pt
 Input point.
The function cvFindNearestPoint2D
is another function that locates input point within subdivision.
It finds subdivision vertex that is the closest to the input point. It is not necessarily one of
vertices of the facet containing the input point, though the facet (located using cvSubdiv2DLocate)
is used as a starting point. The function returns pointer to the found subdivision vertex
CalcSubdivVoronoi2D
Calculates coordinates of Voronoi diagram cells
void cvCalcSubdivVoronoi2D( CvSubdiv2D* subdiv );
 subdiv
 Delaunay subdivision, where all the points are added already.
The function cvCalcSubdivVoronoi2D
calculates coordinates of virtual points.
All virtual points corresponding to some vertex of original subdivision form (when connected together)
a boundary of Voronoi cell of that point.
ClearSubdivVoronoi2D
Removes all virtual points
void cvClearSubdivVoronoi2D( CvSubdiv2D* subdiv );
 subdiv
 Delaunay subdivision.
The function cvClearSubdivVoronoi2D
removes all virtual points.
It is called internally in cvCalcSubdivVoronoi2D if the subdivision was modified
after previous call to the function.
There are a few other lowerlevel functions that work with planar subdivisions, see cv.h
and the sources. Demo script delaunay.c that builds Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi diagram of
random 2d point set can be found at opencv/samples/c.
Motion Analysis and Object Tracking Reference
Accumulation of Background Statistics
Acc
Adds frame to accumulator
void cvAcc( const CvArr* image, CvArr* sum, const CvArr* mask=NULL );
 image
 Input image, 1 or 3channel, 8bit or 32bit floating point.
(each channel of multichannel image is processed independently).
 sum
 Accumulator of the same number of channels as input image, 32bit or 64bit floatingpoint.
 mask
 Optional operation mask.
The function cvAcc
adds the whole image image
or its selected region to accumulator sum
:
sum(x,y)=sum(x,y)+image(x,y) if mask(x,y)!=0
SquareAcc
Adds the square of source image to accumulator
void cvSquareAcc( const CvArr* image, CvArr* sqsum, const CvArr* mask=NULL );
 image
 Input image, 1 or 3channel, 8bit or 32bit floating point
(each channel of multichannel image is processed independently).
 sqsum
 Accumulator of the same number of channels as input image, 32bit or 64bit floatingpoint.
 mask
 Optional operation mask.
The function cvSquareAcc
adds the input image image
or its selected region,
raised to power 2, to the accumulator sqsum
:
sqsum(x,y)=sqsum(x,y)+image(x,y)^{2} if mask(x,y)!=0
MultiplyAcc
Adds product of two input images to accumulator
void cvMultiplyAcc( const CvArr* image1, const CvArr* image2, CvArr* acc, const CvArr* mask=NULL );
 image1
 First input image, 1 or 3channel, 8bit or 32bit floating point
(each channel of multichannel image is processed independently).
 image2
 Second input image, the same format as the first one.
 acc
 Accumulator of the same number of channels as input images, 32bit or 64bit floatingpoint.
 mask
 Optional operation mask.
The function cvMultiplyAcc
adds product of 2 images
or thier selected regions to accumulator acc
:
acc(x,y)=acc(x,y) + image1(x,y)•image2(x,y) if mask(x,y)!=0
RunningAvg
Updates running average
void cvRunningAvg( const CvArr* image, CvArr* acc, double alpha, const CvArr* mask=NULL );
 image
 Input image, 1 or 3channel, 8bit or 32bit floating point
(each channel of multichannel image is processed independently).
 acc
 Accumulator of the same number of channels as input image, 32bit or 64bit floatingpoint.
 alpha
 Weight of input image.
 mask
 Optional operation mask.
The function cvRunningAvg
calculates weighted sum of input image image
and
the accumulator acc
so that acc
becomes a running average of frame sequence:
acc(x,y)=(1α)•acc(x,y) + α•image(x,y) if mask(x,y)!=0
where α (alpha) regulates update speed (how fast accumulator forgets about previous frames).
Motion Templates
UpdateMotionHistory
Updates motion history image by moving silhouette
void cvUpdateMotionHistory( const CvArr* silhouette, CvArr* mhi,
double timestamp, double duration );
 silhouette
 Silhouette mask that has nonzero pixels where the motion occurs.
 mhi
 Motion history image, that is updated by the function (singlechannel, 32bit floatingpoint)
 timestamp
 Current time in milliseconds or other units.
 duration
 Maximal duration of motion track in the same units as
timestamp
.
The function cvUpdateMotionHistory
updates the motion history image as following:
mhi(x,y)=timestamp if silhouette(x,y)!=0
0 if silhouette(x,y)=0 and mhi(x,y)<timestampduration
mhi(x,y) otherwise
That is, MHI pixels where motion occurs are set to the current timestamp, while the pixels
where motion happened far ago are cleared.
CalcMotionGradient
Calculates gradient orientation of motion history image
void cvCalcMotionGradient( const CvArr* mhi, CvArr* mask, CvArr* orientation,
double delta1, double delta2, int aperture_size=3 );
 mhi
 Motion history image.
 mask
 Mask image; marks pixels where motion gradient data is correct. Output
parameter.
 orientation
 Motion gradient orientation image; contains angles from 0 to ~360°.
 delta1, delta2
 The function finds minimum (m(x,y)) and maximum (M(x,y)) mhi values over
each pixel (x,y) neihborhood and assumes the gradient is valid only if
min(delta1,delta2) <= M(x,y)m(x,y) <= max(delta1,delta2).
 aperture_size
 Aperture size of derivative operators used by the function:
CV_SCHARR, 1, 3, 5 or 7 (see cvSobel).
The function cvCalcMotionGradient
calculates the derivatives Dx
and Dy
of
mhi
and then calculates gradient orientation as:
orientation(x,y)=arctan(Dy(x,y)/Dx(x,y))
where both Dx(x,y)
' and Dy(x,y)
' signs are taken into account
(as in cvCartToPolar function).
After that mask
is filled to indicate
where the orientation is valid (see delta1
and delta2
description).
CalcGlobalOrientation
Calculates global motion orientation of some selected region
double cvCalcGlobalOrientation( const CvArr* orientation, const CvArr* mask, const CvArr* mhi,
double timestamp, double duration );
 orientation
 Motion gradient orientation image; calculated by the function
cvCalcMotionGradient.
 mask
 Mask image. It may be a conjunction of valid gradient mask, obtained with
cvCalcMotionGradient and mask of the region, whose direction needs to be
calculated.
 mhi
 Motion history image.
 timestamp
 Current time in milliseconds or other units, it is better to store time passed to
cvUpdateMotionHistory before and reuse it here, because running cvUpdateMotionHistory
and cvCalcMotionGradient on large images may take some time.
 duration
 Maximal duration of motion track in milliseconds, the same as in cvUpdateMotionHistory.
The function cvCalcGlobalOrientation
calculates the general motion direction in
the selected region and returns the angle between 0° and 360°.
At first the function builds the orientation histogram and finds the basic
orientation as a coordinate of the histogram maximum. After that the function
calculates the shift relative to the basic orientation as a weighted sum of all
orientation vectors: the more recent is the motion, the greater is the weight.
The resultant angle is a circular sum of the basic orientation and the shift.
SegmentMotion
Segments whole motion into separate moving parts
CvSeq* cvSegmentMotion( const CvArr* mhi, CvArr* seg_mask, CvMemStorage* storage,
double timestamp, double seg_thresh );
 mhi
 Motion history image.
 seg_mask
 Image where the mask found should be stored, singlechannel, 32bit floatingpoint.
 storage
 Memory storage that will contain a sequence of motion connected components.
 timestamp
 Current time in milliseconds or other units.
 seg_thresh
 Segmentation threshold; recommended to be equal to the interval
between motion history "steps" or greater.
The function cvSegmentMotion
finds all the motion segments and marks them in seg_mask
with individual values each (1,2,...). It also returns a sequence of CvConnectedComp structures,
one per each motion components. After than the motion direction for every component can be calculated
with cvCalcGlobalOrientation using extracted mask of the particular component
(using cvCmp)
Object Tracking
MeanShift
Finds object center on back projection
int cvMeanShift( const CvArr* prob_image, CvRect window,
CvTermCriteria criteria, CvConnectedComp* comp );
 prob_image
 Back projection of object histogram (see cvCalcBackProject).
 window
 Initial search window.
 criteria
 Criteria applied to determine when the window search should be
finished.
 comp
 Resultant structure that contains converged search window coordinates
(
comp>rect
field) and sum of all pixels inside the window (comp>area
field).
The function cvMeanShift
iterates to find the object center given its back projection and
initial position of search window. The iterations are made until the search window
center moves by less than the given value and/or until the function has done the
maximum number of iterations. The function returns the number of iterations
made.
CamShift
Finds object center, size, and orientation
int cvCamShift( const CvArr* prob_image, CvRect window, CvTermCriteria criteria,
CvConnectedComp* comp, CvBox2D* box=NULL );
 prob_image
 Back projection of object histogram (see cvCalcBackProject).
 window
 Initial search window.
 criteria
 Criteria applied to determine when the window search should be
finished.
 comp
 Resultant structure that contains converged search window coordinates
(
comp>rect
field) and sum of all pixels inside the window (comp>area
field).
 box
 Circumscribed box for the object. If not
NULL
, contains object size and
orientation.
The function cvCamShift
implements CAMSHIFT object tracking
algrorithm ([Bradski98]).
First, it finds an object center using cvMeanShift and,
after that, calculates the object size and orientation. The function returns
number of iterations made within cvMeanShift.
CvCamShiftTracker class declared in cv.hpp implements color object tracker that uses
the function.
SnakeImage
Changes contour position to minimize its energy
void cvSnakeImage( const IplImage* image, CvPoint* points, int length,
float* alpha, float* beta, float* gamma, int coeff_usage,
CvSize win, CvTermCriteria criteria, int calc_gradient=1 );
 image
 The source image or external energy field.
 points
 Contour points (snake).
 length
 Number of points in the contour.
 alpha
 Weight[s] of continuity energy, single float or array of
length
floats,
one per each contour point.
 beta
 Weight[s] of curvature energy, similar to
alpha
.
 gamma
 Weight[s] of image energy, similar to
alpha
.
 coeff_usage
 Variant of usage of the previous three parameters:
CV_VALUE
indicates that each of alpha, beta, gamma
is a pointer to a single
value to be used for all points;
CV_ARRAY
indicates that each of alpha, beta, gamma
is a pointer to an array
of coefficients different for all the points of the snake. All the arrays must
have the size equal to the contour size.
 win
 Size of neighborhood of every point used to search the minimum, both
win.width
and
win.height
must be odd.
 criteria
 Termination criteria.
 calc_gradient
 Gradient flag. If not 0, the function calculates gradient magnitude for every image pixel and
consideres it as the energy field, otherwise the input image itself is considered.
The function cvSnakeImage
updates snake in order to minimize its total energy that is a sum
of internal energy that depends on contour shape (the smoother contour is, the smaller internal energy is)
and external energy that depends on the energy field and reaches minimum at the local energy extremums
that correspond to the image edges in case of image gradient.
The parameter criteria.epsilon
is used to define the minimal number of points
that must be moved during any iteration to keep the iteration process running.
If at some iteration the number of moved points is less than criteria.epsilon
or the function
performed criteria.max_iter
iterations, the function terminates.
Optical Flow
CalcOpticalFlowHS
Calculates optical flow for two images
void cvCalcOpticalFlowHS( const CvArr* prev, const CvArr* curr, int use_previous,
CvArr* velx, CvArr* vely, double lambda,
CvTermCriteria criteria );
 prev
 First image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 curr
 Second image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 use_previous
 Uses previous (input) velocity field.
 velx
 Horizontal component of the optical flow of the same size as input images,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
 vely
 Vertical component of the optical flow of the same size as input images,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
 lambda
 Lagrangian multiplier.
 criteria
 Criteria of termination of velocity computing.
The function cvCalcOpticalFlowHS
computes flow for every pixel of the first input image using
Horn & Schunck algorithm [Horn81].
CalcOpticalFlowLK
Calculates optical flow for two images
void cvCalcOpticalFlowLK( const CvArr* prev, const CvArr* curr, CvSize win_size,
CvArr* velx, CvArr* vely );
 prev
 First image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 curr
 Second image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 win_size
 Size of the averaging window used for grouping pixels.
 velx
 Horizontal component of the optical flow of the same size as input images,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
 vely
 Vertical component of the optical flow of the same size as input images,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
The function cvCalcOpticalFlowLK
computes flow for every pixel of the first input image using
Lucas & Kanade algorithm [Lucas81].
CalcOpticalFlowBM
Calculates optical flow for two images by block matching method
void cvCalcOpticalFlowBM( const CvArr* prev, const CvArr* curr, CvSize block_size,
CvSize shift_size, CvSize max_range, int use_previous,
CvArr* velx, CvArr* vely );
 prev
 First image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 curr
 Second image, 8bit, singlechannel.
 block_size
 Size of basic blocks that are compared.
 shift_size
 Block coordinate increments.
 max_range
 Size of the scanned neighborhood in pixels around block.
 use_previous
 Uses previous (input) velocity field.
 velx
 Horizontal component of the optical flow of
floor((prev>width  block_size.width)/shiftSize.width) × floor((prev>height  block_size.height)/shiftSize.height) size,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
 vely
 Vertical component of the optical flow of the same size
velx
,
32bit floatingpoint, singlechannel.
The function cvCalcOpticalFlowBM
calculates optical flow for
overlapped blocks block_size.width×block_size.height
pixels each,
thus the velocity fields are smaller than the original images. For every block in prev
the functions tries to find a similar block in curr
in some neighborhood of the original
block or shifted by (velx(x0,y0),vely(x0,y0)) block as has been calculated
by previous function call (if use_previous=1
)
CalcOpticalFlowPyrLK
Calculates optical flow for a sparse feature set using iterative LucasKanade method in
pyramids
void cvCalcOpticalFlowPyrLK( const CvArr* prev, const CvArr* curr, CvArr* prev_pyr, CvArr* curr_pyr,
const CvPoint2D32f* prev_features, CvPoint2D32f* curr_features,
int count, CvSize win_size, int level, char* status,
float* track_error, CvTermCriteria criteria, int flags );
 prev
 First frame, at time
t
.
 curr
 Second frame, at time
t + dt
.
 prev_pyr
 Buffer for the pyramid for the first frame. If the pointer is not
NULL
,
the buffer must have a sufficient size to store the pyramid from level 1
to
level #level
; the total size of (image_width+8)*image_height/3
bytes
is sufficient.
 curr_pyr
 Similar to
prev_pyr
, used for the second frame.
 prev_features
 Array of points for which the flow needs to be found.
 curr_features
 Array of 2D points containing calculated new positions of input
 features
 in the second image.
 count
 Number of feature points.
 win_size
 Size of the search window of each pyramid level.
 level
 Maximal pyramid level number. If
0
, pyramids are not used (single level),
if 1
, two levels are used, etc.
 status
 Array. Every element of the array is set to
1
if the flow for the
corresponding feature has been found, 0
otherwise.
 error
 Array of double numbers containing difference between patches around the
original and moved points. Optional parameter; can be
NULL
.
 criteria
 Specifies when the iteration process of finding the flow for each point
on each pyramid level should be stopped.
 flags
 Miscellaneous flags:

CV_LKFLOW_PYR_A_READY
, pyramid for the first frame is precalculated before
the call;

CV_LKFLOW_PYR_B_READY
, pyramid for the second frame is precalculated before
the call;

CV_LKFLOW_INITIAL_GUESSES
, array B contains initial coordinates of features
before the function call.
The function cvCalcOpticalFlowPyrLK
implements
sparse iterative version of LucasKanade optical flow in pyramids ([Bouguet00]).
It calculates coordinates of the feature points on the current video frame given
their coordinates on the previous frame. The function finds the coordinates with subpixel accuracy.
Both parameters prev_pyr
and curr_pyr
comply with the following rules: if the image
pointer is 0, the function allocates the buffer internally, calculates the
pyramid, and releases the buffer after processing. Otherwise, the function
calculates the pyramid and stores it in the buffer unless the flag
CV_LKFLOW_PYR_A[B]_READY
is set. The image should be large enough to fit the
Gaussian pyramid data. After the function call both pyramids are calculated and
the readiness flag for the corresponding image can be set in the next call (i.e., typically,
for all the image pairs except the very first one CV_LKFLOW_PYR_A_READY
is set).
Estimators
CvKalman
Kalman filter state
typedef struct CvKalman
{
int MP; /* number of measurement vector dimensions */
int DP; /* number of state vector dimensions */
int CP; /* number of control vector dimensions */
/* backward compatibility fields */
#if 1
float* PosterState; /* =state_pre>data.fl */
float* PriorState; /* =state_post>data.fl */
float* DynamMatr; /* =transition_matrix>data.fl */
float* MeasurementMatr; /* =measurement_matrix>data.fl */
float* MNCovariance; /* =measurement_noise_cov>data.fl */
float* PNCovariance; /* =process_noise_cov>data.fl */
float* KalmGainMatr; /* =gain>data.fl */
float* PriorErrorCovariance;/* =error_cov_pre>data.fl */
float* PosterErrorCovariance;/* =error_cov_post>data.fl */
float* Temp1; /* temp1>data.fl */
float* Temp2; /* temp2>data.fl */
#endif
CvMat* state_pre; /* predicted state (x'(k)):
x(k)=A*x(k1)+B*u(k) */
CvMat* state_post; /* corrected state (x(k)):
x(k)=x'(k)+K(k)*(z(k)H*x'(k)) */
CvMat* transition_matrix; /* state transition matrix (A) */
CvMat* control_matrix; /* control matrix (B)
(it is not used if there is no control)*/
CvMat* measurement_matrix; /* measurement matrix (H) */
CvMat* process_noise_cov; /* process noise covariance matrix (Q) */
CvMat* measurement_noise_cov; /* measurement noise covariance matrix (R) */
CvMat* error_cov_pre; /* priori error estimate covariance matrix (P'(k)):
P'(k)=A*P(k1)*At + Q)*/
CvMat* gain; /* Kalman gain matrix (K(k)):
K(k)=P'(k)*Ht*inv(H*P'(k)*Ht+R)*/
CvMat* error_cov_post; /* posteriori error estimate covariance matrix (P(k)):
P(k)=(IK(k)*H)*P'(k) */
CvMat* temp1; /* temporary matrices */
CvMat* temp2;
CvMat* temp3;
CvMat* temp4;
CvMat* temp5;
}
CvKalman;
The structure CvKalman is used to keep Kalman filter state. It is created
by cvCreateKalman function, updated by cvKalmanPredict and
cvKalmanCorrect functions and released by cvReleaseKalman functions.
Normally, the structure is used for standard Kalman filter (notation and the formulae below are borrowed
from the excellent Kalman tutorial [Welch95]):
x_{k}=A•x_{k1}+B•u_{k}+w_{k}
z_{k}=H•x_{k}+v_{k},
where:
x_{k} (x_{k1})  state of the system at the moment k (k1)
z_{k}  measurement of the system state at the moment k
u_{k}  external control applied at the moment k
w_{k} and v_{k} are normallydistributed process and measurement noise, respectively:
p(w) ~ N(0,Q)
p(v) ~ N(0,R),
that is,
Q  process noise covariance matrix, constant or variable,
R  measurement noise covariance matrix, constant or variable
In case of standard Kalman filter, all the matrices: A, B, H, Q and R are initialized once after
CvKalman structure is allocated via cvCreateKalman.
However, the same structure and the same functions may be used to simulate extended Kalman filter by
linearizing extended Kalman filter equation in the current system state neighborhood,
in this case A, B, H (and, probably, Q and R) should be updated on every step.
CreateKalman
Allocates Kalman filter structure
CvKalman* cvCreateKalman( int dynam_params, int measure_params, int control_params=0 );
 dynam_params
 dimensionality of the state vector
 measure_params
 dimensionality of the measurement vector
 control_params
 dimensionality of the control vector
The function cvCreateKalman
allocates CvKalman and all its matrices
and initializes them somehow.
ReleaseKalman
Deallocates Kalman filter structure
void cvReleaseKalman( CvKalman** kalman );
 kalman
 double pointer to the Kalman filter structure.
The function cvReleaseKalman
releases the structure CvKalman
and all underlying matrices.
KalmanPredict
Estimates subsequent model state
const CvMat* cvKalmanPredict( CvKalman* kalman, const CvMat* control=NULL );
#define cvKalmanUpdateByTime cvKalmanPredict
 kalman
 Kalman filter state.
 control
 Control vector (u_{k}),
should be NULL iff there is no external control (
control_params
=0).
The function cvKalmanPredict
estimates the subsequent stochastic model state
by its current state and stores it at kalman>state_pre
:
x'_{k}=A•x_{k}+B•u_{k}
P'_{k}=A•P_{k1}*A^{T} + Q,
where
x'_{k} is predicted state (kalman>state_pre),
x_{k1} is corrected state on the previous step (kalman>state_post)
(should be initialized somehow in the beginning, zero vector by default),
u_{k} is external control (control
parameter),
P'_{k} is priori error covariance matrix (kalman>error_cov_pre)
P_{k1} is posteriori error covariance matrix on the previous step (kalman>error_cov_post)
(should be initialized somehow in the beginning, identity matrix by default),
The function returns the estimated state.
KalmanCorrect
Adjusts model state
const CvMat* cvKalmanCorrect( CvKalman* kalman, const CvMat* measurement );
#define cvKalmanUpdateByMeasurement cvKalmanCorrect
 kalman
 Pointer to the structure to be updated.
 measurement
 Pointer to the structure CvMat containing the measurement vector.
The function cvKalmanCorrect
adjusts stochastic model state on the
basis of the given measurement of the model state:
K_{k}=P'_{k}•H^{T}•(H•P'_{k}•H^{T}+R)^{1}
x_{k}=x'_{k}+K_{k}•(z_{k}H•x'_{k})
P_{k}=(IK_{k}•H)•P'_{k}
where
z_{k}  given measurement (mesurement
parameter)
K_{k}  Kalman "gain" matrix.
The function stores adjusted state at kalman>state_post
and returns it on output.
Example. Using Kalman filter to track a rotating point
#include "cv.h"
#include "highgui.h"
#include <math.h>
int main(int argc, char** argv)
{
/* A matrix data */
const float A[] = { 1, 1, 0, 1 };
IplImage* img = cvCreateImage( cvSize(500,500), 8, 3 );
CvKalman* kalman = cvCreateKalman( 2, 1, 0 );
/* state is (phi, delta_phi)  angle and angle increment */
CvMat* state = cvCreateMat( 2, 1, CV_32FC1 );
CvMat* process_noise = cvCreateMat( 2, 1, CV_32FC1 );
/* only phi (angle) is measured */
CvMat* measurement = cvCreateMat( 1, 1, CV_32FC1 );
CvRandState rng;
int code = 1;
cvRandInit( &rng, 0, 1, 1, CV_RAND_UNI );
cvZero( measurement );
cvNamedWindow( "Kalman", 1 );
for(;;)
{
cvRandSetRange( &rng, 0, 0.1, 0 );
rng.disttype = CV_RAND_NORMAL;
cvRand( &rng, state );
memcpy( kalman>transition_matrix>data.fl, A, sizeof(A));
cvSetIdentity( kalman>measurement_matrix, cvRealScalar(1) );
cvSetIdentity( kalman>process_noise_cov, cvRealScalar(1e5) );
cvSetIdentity( kalman>measurement_noise_cov, cvRealScalar(1e1) );
cvSetIdentity( kalman>error_cov_post, cvRealScalar(1));
/* choose random initial state */
cvRand( &rng, kalman>state_post );
rng.disttype = CV_RAND_NORMAL;
for(;;)
{
#define calc_point(angle) \
cvPoint( cvRound(img>width/2 + img>width/3*cos(angle)), \
cvRound(img>height/2  img>width/3*sin(angle)))
float state_angle = state>data.fl[0];
CvPoint state_pt = calc_point(state_angle);
/* predict point position */
const CvMat* prediction = cvKalmanPredict( kalman, 0 );
float predict_angle = prediction>data.fl[0];
CvPoint predict_pt = calc_point(predict_angle);
float measurement_angle;
CvPoint measurement_pt;
cvRandSetRange( &rng, 0, sqrt(kalman>measurement_noise_cov>data.fl[0]), 0 );
cvRand( &rng, measurement );
/* generate measurement */
cvMatMulAdd( kalman>measurement_matrix, state, measurement, measurement );
measurement_angle = measurement>data.fl[0];
measurement_pt = calc_point(measurement_angle);
/* plot points */
#define draw_cross( center, color, d ) \
cvLine( img, cvPoint( center.x  d, center.y  d ), \
cvPoint( center.x + d, center.y + d ), color, 1, 0 ); \
cvLine( img, cvPoint( center.x + d, center.y  d ), \
cvPoint( center.x  d, center.y + d ), color, 1, 0 )
cvZero( img );
draw_cross( state_pt, CV_RGB(255,255,255), 3 );
draw_cross( measurement_pt, CV_RGB(255,0,0), 3 );
draw_cross( predict_pt, CV_RGB(0,255,0), 3 );
cvLine( img, state_pt, predict_pt, CV_RGB(255,255,0), 3, 0 );
/* adjust Kalman filter state */
cvKalmanCorrect( kalman, measurement );
cvRandSetRange( &rng, 0, sqrt(kalman>process_noise_cov>data.fl[0]), 0 );
cvRand( &rng, process_noise );
cvMatMulAdd( kalman>transition_matrix, state, process_noise, state );
cvShowImage( "Kalman", img );
code = cvWaitKey( 100 );
if( code > 0 ) /* break current simulation by pressing a key */
break;
}
if( code == 27 ) /* exit by ESCAPE */
break;
}
return 0;
}
CvConDensation
ConDenstation state
typedef struct CvConDensation
{
int MP; //Dimension of measurement vector
int DP; // Dimension of state vector
float* DynamMatr; // Matrix of the linear Dynamics system
float* State; // Vector of State
int SamplesNum; // Number of the Samples
float** flSamples; // array of the Sample Vectors
float** flNewSamples; // temporary array of the Sample Vectors
float* flConfidence; // Confidence for each Sample
float* flCumulative; // Cumulative confidence
float* Temp; // Temporary vector
float* RandomSample; // RandomVector to update sample set
CvRandState* RandS; // Array of structures to generate random vectors
} CvConDensation;
The structure CvConDensation stores CONditional DENSity propagATION tracker state.
The information about the algorithm can be found at
http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/CVonline/LOCAL_COPIES/ISARD1/condensation.html
CreateConDensation
Allocates ConDensation filter structure
CvConDensation* cvCreateConDensation( int dynam_params, int measure_params, int sample_count );
 dynam_params
 Dimension of the state vector.
 measure_params
 Dimension of the measurement vector.
 sample_count
 Number of samples.
The function cvCreateConDensation
creates CvConDensation
structure and returns pointer to the structure.
ReleaseConDensation
Deallocates ConDensation filter structure
void cvReleaseConDensation( CvConDensation** condens );
 condens
 Pointer to the pointer to the structure to be released.
The function cvReleaseConDensation
releases the structure CvConDensation (see
cvConDensation) and frees all memory previously allocated for the structure.
ConDensInitSampleSet
Initializes sample set for ConDensation algorithm
void cvConDensInitSampleSet( CvConDensation* condens, CvMat* lower_bound, CvMat* upper_bound );
 condens
 Pointer to a structure to be initialized.
 lower_bound
 Vector of the lower boundary for each dimension.
 upper_bound
 Vector of the upper boundary for each dimension.
The function cvConDensInitSampleSet
fills the samples arrays in the structure
CvConDensation with values within specified ranges.
ConDensUpdateByTime
Estimates subsequent model state
void cvConDensUpdateByTime( CvConDensation* condens );
 condens
 Pointer to the structure to be updated.
The function cvConDensUpdateByTime
estimates the subsequent stochastic model state from its current state.
Pattern Recognition
Object Detection
The object detector described below has been initially proposed by Paul Viola
[Viola01] and improved by Rainer Lienhart
[Lienhart02].
First, a classifier (namely a cascade of boosted classifiers working
with haarlike features
) is trained with a few hundreds of sample
views of a particular object (i.e., a face or a car), called positive
examples, that are scaled to the same size (say, 20x20), and negative examples
 arbitrary images of the same size.
After a classifier is trained, it can be applied to a region of interest (of
the same size as used during the training) in an input image. The
classifier outputs a "1" if the region is likely to show the object
(i.e., face/car), and "0" otherwise. To search for the object in the
whole image one can move the search window across the image and check
every location using the classifier. The classifier is designed so that it can
be easily "resized" in order to be able to find the objects of interest
at different sizes, which is more efficient than resizing the image itself. So,
to find an object of an unknown size in the image the scan procedure should be
done several times at different scales.
The word "cascade" in the classifier name means that the resultant classifier
consists of several simpler classifiers (stages
) that are applied
subsequently to a region of interest until at some stage the candidate
is rejected or all the stages are passed. The word
"boosted" means that the classifiers at every stage of the cascade are complex
themselves and they are built out of basic classifiers using one of four
different boosting
techniques (weighted voting). Currently
Discrete Adaboost, Real Adaboost, Gentle Adaboost and Logitboost are supported.
The basic classifiers are decisiontree classifiers with at least
2 leaves. Haarlike features are the input to the basic classifers, and
are calculated as described below. The current algorithm uses the following
Haarlike features:
The feature used in a particular classifier is specified by its shape (1a,
2b etc.), position within the region of interest and the scale (this scale is
not the same as the scale used at the detection stage, though these two scales
are multiplied). For example, in case of the third line feature (2c) the
response is calculated as the difference between the sum of image pixels
under the rectangle covering the whole feature (including the two white
stripes and the black stripe in the middle) and the sum of the image
pixels under the black stripe multiplied by 3 in order to compensate for
the differences in the size of areas. The sums of pixel values over a
rectangular regions are calculated rapidly using integral images
(see below and
cvIntegral description).
To see the object detector at work, have a look at HaarFaceDetect demo.
The following reference is for the detection part only. There is a
separate application called haartraining
that can train a
cascade of boosted classifiers from a set of samples.
See opencv/apps/haartraining
for details.
CvHaarFeature, CvHaarClassifier, CvHaarStageClassifier, CvHaarClassifierCascade
Boosted Haar classifier structures
#define CV_HAAR_FEATURE_MAX 3
/* a haar feature consists of 23 rectangles with appropriate weights */
typedef struct CvHaarFeature
{
int tilted; /* 0 means upright feature, 1 means 45rotated feature */
/* 23 rectangles with weights of opposite signs and
with absolute values inversely proportional to the areas of the rectangles.
if rect[2].weight !=0, then
the feature consists of 3 rectangles, otherwise it consists of 2 */
struct
{
CvRect r;
float weight;
} rect[CV_HAAR_FEATURE_MAX];
}
CvHaarFeature;
/* a single tree classifier (stump in the simplest case) that returns the response for the feature
at the particular image location (i.e. pixel sum over subrectangles of the window) and gives out
a value depending on the responce */
typedef struct CvHaarClassifier
{
int count; /* number of nodes in the decision tree */
/* these are "parallel" arrays. Every index i
corresponds to a node of the decision tree (root has 0th index).
left[i]  index of the left child (or negated index if the left child is a leaf)
right[i]  index of the right child (or negated index if the right child is a leaf)
threshold[i]  branch threshold. if feature responce is <= threshold, left branch
is chosen, otherwise right branch is chosed.
alpha[i]  output value correponding to the leaf. */
CvHaarFeature* haar_feature;
float* threshold;
int* left;
int* right;
float* alpha;
}
CvHaarClassifier;
/* a boosted battery of classifiers(=stage classifier):
the stage classifier returns 1
if the sum of the classifiers' responces
is greater than threshold
and 0 otherwise */
typedef struct CvHaarStageClassifier
{
int count; /* number of classifiers in the battery */
float threshold; /* threshold for the boosted classifier */
CvHaarClassifier* classifier; /* array of classifiers */
/* these fields are used for organizing trees of stage classifiers,
rather than just stright cascades */
int next;
int child;
int parent;
}
CvHaarStageClassifier;
typedef struct CvHidHaarClassifierCascade CvHidHaarClassifierCascade;
/* cascade or tree of stage classifiers */
typedef struct CvHaarClassifierCascade
{
int flags; /* signature */
int count; /* number of stages */
CvSize orig_window_size; /* original object size (the cascade is trained for) */
/* these two parameters are set by cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade */
CvSize real_window_size; /* current object size */
double scale; /* current scale */
CvHaarStageClassifier* stage_classifier; /* array of stage classifiers */
CvHidHaarClassifierCascade* hid_cascade; /* hidden optimized representation of the cascade,
created by cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade */
}
CvHaarClassifierCascade;
All the structures are used for representing a cascaded of boosted Haar
classifiers. The cascade has the following hierarchical structure:
Cascade:
Stage_{1}:
Classifier_{11}:
Feature_{11}
Classifier_{12}:
Feature_{12}
...
Stage_{2}:
Classifier_{21}:
Feature_{21}
...
...
The whole hierarchy can be constructed manually or loaded from a file or an
embedded base using function cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade.
cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade
Loads a trained cascade classifier from file
or the classifier database embedded in OpenCV
CvHaarClassifierCascade* cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade(
const char* directory,
CvSize orig_window_size );
 directory
 Name of directory containing the description of a trained cascade
classifier.
 orig_window_size
 Original size of objects the cascade has been
trained on. Note that it is not stored in the cascade and therefore must
be specified separately.
The function cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade
loads a trained cascade of haar classifiers from a file or the classifier
database embedded in OpenCV. The base can be trained using haartraining
application (see opencv/apps/haartraining for details).
The function is obsolete. Nowadays object detection classifiers are stored in
XML or YAML files, rather than in directories. To load cascade from a
file, use cvLoad function.
cvReleaseHaarClassifierCascade
Releases haar classifier cascade
void cvReleaseHaarClassifierCascade( CvHaarClassifierCascade** cascade );
 cascade
 Double pointer to the released cascade.
The pointer is cleared by the function.
The function cvReleaseHaarClassifierCascade
deallocates the cascade that has been created manually or loaded using
cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade or
cvLoad.
cvHaarDetectObjects
Detects objects in the image
typedef struct CvAvgComp
{
CvRect rect; /* bounding rectangle for the object (average rectangle of a group) */
int neighbors; /* number of neighbor rectangles in the group */
}
CvAvgComp;
CvSeq* cvHaarDetectObjects( const CvArr* image, CvHaarClassifierCascade* cascade,
CvMemStorage* storage, double scale_factor=1.1,
int min_neighbors=3, int flags=0,
CvSize min_size=cvSize(0,0) );
 image
 Image to detect objects in.
 cascade
 Haar classifier cascade in internal representation.
 storage
 Memory storage to store the resultant sequence of the
object candidate rectangles.
 scale_factor
 The factor by which the search window is scaled between the subsequent scans,
for example, 1.1 means increasing window by 10%.
 min_neighbors
 Minimum number (minus 1) of neighbor rectangles
that makes up an object. All the groups of a smaller number of rectangles
than
min_neighbors
1 are rejected.
If min_neighbors
is 0, the function does not any
grouping at all and returns all the detected candidate rectangles,
which may be useful if the user wants to apply a customized grouping procedure.
 flags
 Mode of operation. Currently the only flag that may be specified is
CV_HAAR_DO_CANNY_PRUNING
.
If it is set, the function uses Canny edge detector to reject some image
regions that contain too few or too much edges and thus can not contain the
searched object. The particular threshold values are tuned for face detection
and in this case the pruning speeds up the processing.
 min_size
 Minimum window size. By default, it is set to the size of samples the classifier
has been trained on (~20×20 for face detection).
The function cvHaarDetectObjects
finds
rectangular regions in the given image that are likely to contain objects
the cascade has been trained for and returns those regions as
a sequence of rectangles. The function scans the image several
times at different scales (see
cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade). Each time it considers
overlapping regions in the image and applies the classifiers to the regions
using cvRunHaarClassifierCascade.
It may also apply some heuristics to reduce number of analyzed regions, such as
Canny prunning. After it has proceeded and collected the candidate rectangles
(regions that passed the classifier cascade), it groups them and returns a
sequence of average rectangles for each large enough group. The default
parameters (scale_factor
=1.1, min_neighbors
=3, flags
=0)
are tuned for accurate yet slow object detection. For a faster operation on
real video images the settings are: scale_factor
=1.2, min_neighbors
=2,
flags
=CV_HAAR_DO_CANNY_PRUNING, min_size
=<minimum possible face size>
(for example, ~1/4 to 1/16 of the image area in case of video conferencing).
Example. Using cascade of Haar classifiers to find objects (e.g. faces).
#include "cv.h"
#include "highgui.h"
CvHaarClassifierCascade* load_object_detector( const char* cascade_path )
{
return (CvHaarClassifierCascade*)cvLoad( cascade_path );
}
void detect_and_draw_objects( IplImage* image,
CvHaarClassifierCascade* cascade,
int do_pyramids )
{
IplImage* small_image = image;
CvMemStorage* storage = cvCreateMemStorage(0);
CvSeq* faces;
int i, scale = 1;
/* if the flag is specified, downscale the input image to get a
performance boost w/o loosing quality (perhaps) */
if( do_pyramids )
{
small_image = cvCreateImage( cvSize(image>width/2,image>height/2), IPL_DEPTH_8U, 3 );
cvPyrDown( image, small_image, CV_GAUSSIAN_5x5 );
scale = 2;
}
/* use the fastest variant */
faces = cvHaarDetectObjects( small_image, cascade, storage, 1.2, 2, CV_HAAR_DO_CANNY_PRUNING );
/* draw all the rectangles */
for( i = 0; i < faces>total; i++ )
{
/* extract the rectanlges only */
CvRect face_rect = *(CvRect*)cvGetSeqElem( faces, i, 0 );
cvRectangle( image, cvPoint(face_rect.x*scale,face_rect.y*scale),
cvPoint((face_rect.x+face_rect.width)*scale,
(face_rect.y+face_rect.height)*scale),
CV_RGB(255,0,0), 3 );
}
if( small_image != image )
cvReleaseImage( &small_image );
cvReleaseMemStorage( &storage );
}
/* takes image filename and cascade path from the command line */
int main( int argc, char** argv )
{
IplImage* image;
if( argc==3 && (image = cvLoadImage( argv[1], 1 )) != 0 )
{
CvHaarClassifierCascade* cascade = load_object_detector(argv[2]);
detect_and_draw_objects( image, cascade, 1 );
cvNamedWindow( "test", 0 );
cvShowImage( "test", image );
cvWaitKey(0);
cvReleaseHaarClassifierCascade( &cascade );
cvReleaseImage( &image );
}
return 0;
}
cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade
Assigns images to the hidden cascade
void cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade( CvHaarClassifierCascade* cascade,
const CvArr* sum, const CvArr* sqsum,
const CvArr* tilted_sum, double scale );
 cascade
 Hidden Haar classifier cascade, created by
cvCreateHidHaarClassifierCascade.
 sum
 Integral (sum) singlechannel image of 32bit integer format. This image as well as the
two subsequent images are used for fast feature evaluation and
brightness/contrast normalization. They all can be retrieved from input 8bit
or floating point singlechannel image using The function
cvIntegral
.
 sqsum
 Square sum singlechannel image of 64bit floatingpoint format.
 tilted_sum
 Tilted sum singlechannel image of 32bit integer format.
 scale
 Window scale for the cascade. If
scale
=1, original window size is
used (objects of that size are searched)  the same size as specified in
cvLoadHaarClassifierCascade
(24x24 in case of "<default_face_cascade>"), if scale
=2,
a two times larger window is used (48x48 in case of default face cascade).
While this will speedup search about four times,
faces smaller than 48x48 cannot be detected.
The function cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade
assigns images and/or window scale to the hidden classifier cascade.
If image pointers are NULL, the previously set images are used further
(i.e. NULLs mean "do not change images"). Scale parameter has no such a "protection" value, but
the previous value can be retrieved by
cvGetHaarClassifierCascadeScale function and reused again. The function
is used to prepare cascade for detecting object of the particular size in the
particular image. The function is called internally by
cvHaarDetectObjects, but it can be called by user if there is a need in
using lowerlevel function cvRunHaarClassifierCascade.
cvRunHaarClassifierCascade
Runs cascade of boosted classifier at given image location
int cvRunHaarClassifierCascade( CvHaarClassifierCascade* cascade,
CvPoint pt, int start_stage=0 );
 cascade
 Haar classifier cascade.
 pt
 Topleft corner of the analyzed
region. Size of the region is a original window size scaled by the currenly set
scale. The current window size may be retrieved using
cvGetHaarClassifierCascadeWindowSize function.
 start_stage
 Initial zerobased index of the cascade stage to start from.
The function assumes that all the previous stages are passed.
This feature is used internally by
cvHaarDetectObjects for better processor cache utilization.
The function cvRunHaarHaarClassifierCascade
runs Haar classifier cascade at a single image location. Before using this
function the integral images and the appropriate scale (=> window size)
should be set using cvSetImagesForHaarClassifierCascade.
The function returns positive value if the analyzed rectangle passed all the classifier
stages (it is a candidate) and zero or negative value otherwise.
Camera Calibration and 3D Reconstruction
Pinhole Camera Model, Distortion
The functions in this section use socalled pinhole camera model. That is,
a scene view is formed by projecting 3D points into the image plane using perspective transformation.
s*m' = A*[Rt]*M', or
[u] [fx 0 cx] [r_{11} r_{12} r_{13} t_{1}] [X]
s[v] = [0 fy cy]*[r_{21} r_{22} r_{23} t_{2}]*[Y]
[1] [0 0 1] [r_{31} r_{32} r_{33} t_{2}] [Z]
[1]
Where (X, Y, Z)
are coordinates of a 3D point in the world coordinate space,
(u, v)
are coordinates of point projection in pixels.
A
is called a camera matrix, or matrix of intrinsic parameters.
(cx, cy)
is a principal point (that is usually at the image center),
and fx, fy
are focal lengths expressed in pixelrelated units.
Thus, if an image from camera is upsampled/downsampled by some factor,
all these parameters (fx, fy, cx
and cy
) should be scaled
(multiplied/divided, respectively) by the same factor.
The matrix of intrinsic parameters does not depend on the scene viewed
and, once estimated, can be reused (as long as the focal length is fixed (in case of zoom lens)).
The joint rotationtranslation matrix [Rt]
is called a matrix of extrinsic parameters.
It is used to describe the camera motion around a static scene, or vice versa,
rigid motion of an object in front of still camera. That is, [Rt]
translates coordinates
of a point (X, Y, Z)
to some coordinate system, fixed with respect to the camera.
The transformation above is equivalent to the following (when z≠0):
[x] [X]
[y] = R*[Y] + t
[z] [Z]
x' = x/z
y' = y/z
u = fx*x' + cx
v = fy*y' + cy
Real lens usually have some distortion, which major components are radial distorion
and slight tangential distortion. So, the above model is extended as:
[x] [X]
[y] = R*[Y] + t
[z] [Z]
x' = x/z
y' = y/z
x" = x'*(1 + k_{1}r^{2} + k_{2}r^{4}) + 2*p_{1}x'*y' + p_{2}(r^{2}+2*x'^{2})
y" = y'*(1 + k_{1}r^{2} + k_{2}r^{4}) + p_{1}(r^{2}+2*y'^{2}) + 2*p_{2}*x'*y'
where r^{2} = x'^{2}+y'^{2}
u = fx*x" + cx
v = fy*y" + cy
k_{1}, k_{2} are radial distortion coefficients,
p_{1}, p_{2} are tangential distortion coefficients.
Higherorder coefficients are not considered in OpenCV.
The distortion coefficients also do not depend on the scene viewed,
thus they are intrinsic camera parameters.
And they remain the same regardless of the captured image resolution.
The functions below use the above model to
 Project 3D points to the image plane given intrinsic and extrinsic parameters
 Compute extrinsic parameters given intrinsic parameters, a few 3D points and their projections.
 Estimate intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters from several views of a known calibration pattern
(i.e. every view is described by several 3D2D point correspodences).
Camera Calibration
ProjectPoints2
Projects 3D points to image plane
void cvProjectPoints2( const CvMat* object_points, const CvMat* rotation_vector,
const CvMat* translation_vector, const CvMat* intrinsic_matrix,
const CvMat* distortion_coeffs, CvMat* image_points,
CvMat* dpdrot=NULL, CvMat* dpdt=NULL, CvMat* dpdf=NULL,
CvMat* dpdc=NULL, CvMat* dpddist=NULL );
 object_points
 The array of object points, 3xN or Nx3,
where N is the number of points in the view.
 rotation_vector
 The rotation vector, 1x3 or 3x1.
 translation_vector
 The translation vector, 1x3 or 3x1.
 intrinsic_matrix
 The camera matrix (A) [fx 0 cx; 0 fy cy; 0 0 1].
 distortion_coeffs
 The vector of distortion coefficients, 4x1 or 1x4
[k_{1}, k_{2}, p_{1}, p_{2}].
If it is NULL, all distortion coefficients are considered 0's.
 image_points
 The output array of image points, 2xN or Nx2,
where N is the total number of points in the view.
 dpdrot
 Optional Nx3 matrix of derivatives of image points with respect to components of the rotation vector.
 dpdt
 Optional Nx3 matrix of derivatives of image points w.r.t. components of the translation vector.
 dpdf
 Optional Nx2 matrix of derivatives of image points w.r.t. fx and fy.
 dpdc
 Optional Nx2 matrix of derivatives of image points w.r.t. cx and cy.
 dpddist
 Optional Nx4 matrix of derivatives of image points w.r.t. distortion coefficients.
The function cvProjectPoints2
computes projections of 3D points to the image plane given
intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. Optionally, the function computes jacobians  matrices of
partial derivatives of image points as functions of all the input parameters w.r.t. the particular parameters,
intrinsic and/or extrinsic. The jacobians are used during the global optimization in
cvCalibrateCamera2 and
cvFindExtrinsicCameraParams2.
The function itself is also used to compute backprojection error for with current
intrinsic and extrinsic parameters.
Note, that with intrinsic and/or extrinsic parameters set to special values,
the function can be used to compute just extrinsic transformation or just intrinsic
transformation (i.e. distortion of a sparse set of points).
FindHomography
Finds perspective transformation between two planes
void cvFindHomography( const CvMat* src_points,
const CvMat* dst_points,
CvMat* homography );
 src_points
 Point coordinates in the original plane, 2xN, Nx2, 3xN or Nx3 array
(the latter two are for representation in homogenious coordinates),
where N is the number of points.
 dst_points
 Point coordinates in the destination plane, 2xN, Nx2, 3xN or Nx3 array
(the latter two are for representation in homogenious coordinates)
 homography
 Output 3x3 homography matrix.
The function cvFindHomography
finds perspective transformation H=hij
between the source
and the destination planes:
[x'_{i}] [x_{i}]
s_{i}[y'_{i}]~H*[y_{i}]
[1 ] [ 1]
So that the backprojection error is minimized:
sum_i((x'_{i}(h11*x_{i} + h12*y_{i} + h13)/(h31*x_{i} + h32*y_{i} + h33))^{2}+
(y'_{i}(h21*x_{i} + h22*y_{i} + h23)/(h31*x_{i} + h32*y_{i} + h33))^{2}) > min
The function is used to find initial intrinsic and extrinsic matrices.
Homography matrix is determined up to a scale, thus it is normalized to make h33=1.
CalibrateCamera2
Finds intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters using calibration pattern
void cvCalibrateCamera2( const CvMat* object_points, const CvMat* image_points,
const CvMat* point_counts, CvSize image_size,
CvMat* intrinsic_matrix, CvMat* distortion_coeffs,
CvMat* rotation_vectors=NULL, CvMat* translation_vectors=NULL,
int flags=0 );
 object_points
 The joint matrix of object points, 3xN or Nx3,
where N is the total number of points in all views.
 image_points
 The joint matrix of corresponding image points, 2xN or Nx2,
where N is the total number of points in all views.
 point_counts
 Vector containing numbers of points in each particular view,
1xM or Mx1, where M is the number of a scene views.
 image_size
 Size of the image, used only to initialize intrinsic camera matrix.
 intrinsic_matrix
 The output camera matrix (A) [fx 0 cx; 0 fy cy; 0 0 1].
If
CV_CALIB_USE_INTRINSIC_GUESS
and/or
CV_CALIB_FIX_ASPECT_RATION
are specified, some or all
of fx, fy, cx, cy
must be initialized.
 distortion_coeffs
 The output 4x1 or 1x4 vector of distortion coefficients
[k_{1}, k_{2}, p_{1}, p_{2}].
 rotation_vectors
 The output 3xM or Mx3 array of rotation vectors
(compact representation of rotation matrices,
see cvRodrigues2).
 translation_vectors
 The output 3xM or Mx3 array of translation vectors.
 flags
 Different flags, may be 0 or combination of the following values:
CV_CALIB_USE_INTRINSIC_GUESS
 intrinsic_matrix
contains
valid initial values of fx, fy, cx, cy
that are optimized further.
Otherwise, (cx, cy)
is initially set to the image center
(image_size
is used here),
and focal distances are computed in some leastsquares fashion.
Note, that if intrinsic parameters are known, there is no need to use this function.
Use cvFindExtrinsicCameraParams2 instead.
CV_CALIB_FIX_PRINCIPAL_POINT
 The principal point is not changed during the global
optimization, it stays at the center and at the other location specified (when
CV_CALIB_USE_INTRINSIC_GUESS
is set as well).
CV_CALIB_FIX_ASPECT_RATIO
 The optimization procedure consider only
one of fx
and fy
as independent variable and keeps the aspect ratio
fx/fy
the same as it was set initially in intrinsic_matrix
.
In this case the actual initial values of (fx, fy)
are either taken from the matrix
(when CV_CALIB_USE_INTRINSIC_GUESS
is set) or estimated somehow (in the latter case
fx, fy
may be set to arbitrary values, only their ratio is used).
CV_CALIB_ZERO_TANGENT_DIST
 Tangential distortion coefficients are set to
zeros and do not change during the optimization.
The function cvCalibrateCamera2
estimates intrinsic camera parameters and extrinsic parameters
for each of the views.
The coordinates of 3D object points and their correspondent 2D projections in each view
must be specified. That may be achieved by using an object with known geometry and easily detectable
feature points. Such an object is called calibration rig or calibration pattern, and OpenCV has builtin
support for a chessboard as a calibration rig
(see cvFindChessboardCornerGuesses).
Currently, initialization of inrtrinsic parameters (when CV_CALIB_USE_INTRINSIC_GUESS
is not set) is only implemented for planar calibration rigs (zcoordinates of object points
must be all 0's or all 1's). 3D rigs can still be used as long as initial intrinsic_matrix
is provided. After the initial values of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are computed, they are
optimized to minimize the total backprojection error  the sum of squared differences between the
actual coordinates of image points and the ones computed using
cvProjectPoints2.
FindExtrinsicCameraParams2
Finds extrinsic camera parameters for particular view
void cvFindExtrinsicCameraParams2( const CvMat* object_points,
const CvMat* image_points,
const CvMat* intrinsic_matrix,
const CvMat* distortion_coeffs,
CvMat* rotation_vector,
CvMat* translation_vector );
 object_points
 The array of object points, 3xN or Nx3,
where N is the number of points in the view.
 image_points
 The array of corresponding image points, 2xN or Nx2,
where N is the number of points in the view.
 intrinsic_matrix
 The camera matrix (A) [fx 0 cx; 0 fy cy; 0 0 1].
 distortion_coeffs
 The vector of distortion coefficients, 4x1 or 1x4
[k_{1}, k_{2}, p_{1}, p_{2}].
If it is NULL, all distortion coefficients are considered 0's.
 rotation_vector
 The output 3x1 or 1x3 rotation vector
(compact representation of a rotation matrix,
see cvRodrigues2).
 translation_vector
 The output 3x1 or 1x3 translation vector.
The function cvFindExtrinsicCameraParams2
estimates extrinsic camera parameters
using known intrinsic parameters and and extrinsic parameters
for each view. The coordinates of 3D object points and their correspondent 2D projections
must be specified. This function also minimizes backprojection error.
Rodrigues2
Converts rotation matrix to rotation vector or vice versa
int cvRodrigues2( const CvMat* src, CvMat* dst, CvMat* jacobian=0 );
 src
 The input rotation vector (3x1 or 1x3) or rotation matrix (3x3).
 dst
 The output rotation matrix (3x3) or rotation vector (3x1 or 1x3), respectively.
 jacobian
 Optional output Jacobian matrix, 3x9 or 9x3  partial derivatives of
the output array components w.r.t the input array components.
The function cvRodrigues2
converts a rotation vector to rotation matrix or
vice versa. Rotation vector is a compact representation of rotation matrix.
Direction of the rotation vector is the rotation axis and the length of the vector is the rotation
angle around the axis.
The rotation matrix R
, corresponding to the rotation vector r
,
is computed as following:
theta < norm(r)
r < r/theta
[0 r_{z} r_{y}]
R = cos(theta)*I + (1cos(theta))*rr^{T} + sin(theta)*[r_{z} 0 r_{x}]
[r_{y} r_{x} 0]
Inverse transformation can also be done easily as
[0 r_{z} r_{y}]
sin(theta)*[r_{z} 0 r_{x}] = (R  R^{T})/2
[r_{y} r_{x} 0]
Rotation vector is a convenient representation of a rotation matrix as a matrix with only 3 degrees of freedom.
The representation is used in the global optimization procedures inside
cvFindExtrinsicCameraParams2 and
cvCalibrateCamera2.
Undistort2
Transforms image to compensate lens distortion
void cvUndistort2( const CvArr* src, CvArr* dst,
const CvMat* intrinsic_matrix,
const CvMat* distortion_coeffs );
 src
 The input (distorted) image.
 dst
 The output (corrected) image.
 intrinsic_matrix
 The camera matrix (A) [fx 0 cx; 0 fy cy; 0 0 1].
 distortion_coeffs
 The vector of distortion coefficients, 4x1 or 1x4
[k_{1}, k_{2}, p_{1}, p_{2}].
The function cvUndistort2
transforms the image to compensate radial and tangential lens distortion.
The camera matrix and distortion parameters can be determined using
cvCalibrateCamera2.
For every pixel in the output image the function computes coordinates of the corresponding location in the input
image using the formulae in the section beginning. Then, the pixel value is computed using bilinear interpolation.
If the resolution of images is different from what was used at the calibration stage,
fx, fy, cx
and cy
need to be adjusted appropriately, while
the distortion coefficients remain the same.
InitUndistortMap
Computes undistorion map
void cvInitUndistortMap( const CvMat* intrinsic_matrix,
const CvMat* distortion_coeffs,
CvArr* mapx, CvArr* mapy );
 intrinsic_matrix
 The camera matrix (A) [fx 0 cx; 0 fy cy; 0 0 1].
 distortion_coeffs
 The vector of distortion coefficients, 4x1 or 1x4
[k_{1}, k_{2}, p_{1}, p_{2}].
 mapx
 The output array of xcoordinates of the map.
 mapy
 The output array of ycoordinates of the map.
The function cvInitUndistortMap
precomputes the undistortion map
 coordinates of the corresponding pixel in the distorted image for every pixel in the corrected image.
Then, the map (together with input and output images) can be passed
to cvRemap function.
FindChessboardCorners
Finds positions of internal corners of the chessboard
int cvFindChessboardCorners( const void* image, CvSize pattern_size,
CvPoint2D32f* corners, int* corner_count=NULL,
int flags=CV_CALIB_CB_ADAPTIVE_THRESH );
 image
 Source chessboard view; it must be 8bit grayscale or color image.
 pattern_size
 The number of inner corners per chessboard row and column.
 corners
 The output array of corners detected.
 corner_count
 The output corner counter. If it is not NULL, the function stores
there the number of corners found.
 flags
 Various operation flags, can be 0 or a combination of the following values:
CV_CALIB_CB_ADAPTIVE_THRESH
 use adaptive thresholding to convert the
image to blacknwhite, rather than a fixed threshold level (computed from the average image brightness).
CV_CALIB_CB_NORMALIZE_IMAGE
 normalize the image using
cvNormalizeHist before applying fixed or adaptive thresholding.
CV_CALIB_CB_FILTER_QUADS
 use additional criteria (like contour area, perimeter,
squarelike shape) to filter out false quads that are extracted at the contour retrieval stage.
The function cvFindChessboardCorners
attempts to determine whether the input
image is a view of the chessboard pattern and locate internal chessboard
corners. The function returns nonzero value if all the corners have been found
and they have been placed in a certain order (row by row, left to right in every
row), otherwise, if the function fails to find all the corners or reorder them,
it returns 0. For example, a regular chessboard has 8 x 8 squares and 7
x 7 internal corners, that is, points, where the black squares touch each other.
The coordinates detected are approximate, and to determine their position more accurately,
the user may use the function cvFindCornerSubPix.
DrawChessBoardCorners
Renders the detected chessboard corners
void cvDrawChessboardCorners( CvArr* image, CvSize pattern_size,
CvPoint2D32f* corners, int count,
int pattern_was_found );
 image
 The destination image; it must be 8bit color image.
 pattern_size
 The number of inner corners per chessboard row and column.
 corners
 The array of corners detected.
 count
 The number of corners.
 pattern_was_found
 Indicates whether the complete board was found (≠0) or not (=0). One may just
pass the return value cvFindChessboardCorners here.
The function cvDrawChessboardCorners
draws the individual chessboard corners detected (as red circles)
in case if the board was not found (pattern_was_found
=0) or the colored corners connected with lines
when the board was found (pattern_was_found
≠0).
Pose Estimation
CreatePOSITObject
Initializes structure containing object information
CvPOSITObject* cvCreatePOSITObject( CvPoint3D32f* points, int point_count );
 points
 Pointer to the points of the 3D object model.
 point_count
 Number of object points.
The function cvCreatePOSITObject
allocates memory for the object structure and
computes the object inverse matrix.
The preprocessed object data is stored in the structure CvPOSITObject, internal
for OpenCV, which means that the user cannot directly access the structure data.
The user may only create this structure and pass its pointer to the function.
Object is defined as a set of points given in a coordinate system. The function
cvPOSIT computes a vector that begins at a camerarelated coordinate system center
and ends at the points[0]
of the object.
Once the work with a given object is finished, the function
cvReleasePOSITObject
must be called to free memory.
POSIT
Implements POSIT algorithm
void cvPOSIT( CvPOSITObject* posit_object, CvPoint2D32f* image_points, double focal_length,
CvTermCriteria criteria, CvMatr32f rotation_matrix, CvVect32f translation_vector );
 posit_object
 Pointer to the object structure.
 image_points
 Pointer to the object points projections on the 2D image plane.
 focal_length
 Focal length of the camera used.
 criteria
 Termination criteria of the iterative POSIT algorithm.
 rotation_matrix
 Matrix of rotations.
 translation_vector
 Translation vector.
The function cvPOSIT
implements POSIT algorithm. Image coordinates are given in a
camerarelated coordinate system. The focal length may be retrieved using camera
calibration functions. At every iteration of the algorithm new perspective
projection of estimated pose is computed.
Difference norm between two projections is the maximal distance between
corresponding points. The parameter criteria.epsilon
serves to stop the
algorithm if the difference is small.
ReleasePOSITObject
Deallocates 3D object structure
void cvReleasePOSITObject( CvPOSITObject** posit_object );
 posit_object
 Double pointer to
CvPOSIT
structure.
The function cvReleasePOSITObject
releases memory previously allocated by the
function cvCreatePOSITObject.
CalcImageHomography
Calculates homography matrix for oblong planar object (e.g. arm)
void cvCalcImageHomography( float* line, CvPoint3D32f* center,
float* intrinsic, float* homography );
 line
 the main object axis direction (vector (dx,dy,dz)).
 center
 object center ((cx,cy,cz)).
 intrinsic
 intrinsic camera parameters (3x3 matrix).
 homography
 output homography matrix (3x3).
The function cvCalcImageHomography
calculates the homography matrix for the initial
image transformation from image plane to the plane, defined by 3D oblong object line (See
Figure 610 in OpenCV Guide 3D Reconstruction Chapter).
Epipolar Geometry
FindFundamentalMat
Calculates fundamental matrix from corresponding points in two images
int cvFindFundamentalMat( const CvMat* points1,
const CvMat* points2,
CvMat* fundamental_matrix,
int method=CV_FM_RANSAC,
double param1=1.,
double param2=0.99,
CvMat* status=NULL);
 points1
 Array of the first image points of
2xN, Nx2, 3xN
or Nx3
size
(where N
is number of points).
Multichannel 1xN
or Nx1
array is also acceptable.
The point coordinates should be floatingpoint (single or double precision)
 points2
 Array of the second image points of the same size and format as
points1
 fundamental_matrix
 The output fundamental matrix or matrices. The size should be 3x3 or 9x3
(7point method may return up to 3 matrices).
 method
 Method for computing the fundamental matrix
 CV_FM_7POINT  for 7point algorithm. N == 7
 CV_FM_8POINT  for 8point algorithm. N >= 8
 CV_FM_RANSAC  for RANSAC algorithm. N >= 8
 CV_FM_LMEDS  for LMedS algorithm. N >= 8
 param1
 The parameter is used for RANSAC or LMedS methods only.
It is the maximum distance from point to epipolar line in pixels,
beyond which the point is considered an outlier and is not used
for computing the final fundamental matrix.
Usually it is set to 0.5 or 1.0.
 param2
 The parameter is used for RANSAC or LMedS methods only.
It denotes the desirable level of confidence that the matrix
is correct.
 status
 The optional output array of N elements,
every element of which is set to 0 for outliers
and to 1 for the other points.
The array is computed only in RANSAC and LMedS methods.
For other methods it is set to all 1’s.
The epipolar geometry is described by the following equation:
p_{2}^{T}*F*p_{1}=0,
where F
is fundamental matrix, p_{1}
and p_{2}
are corresponding
points in the first and the second images, respectively.
The function cvFindFundamentalMat
calculates fundamental matrix using one of four
methods listed above and returns the number of fundamental matrices found (1 or 3) and 0,
if no matrix is found.
The calculated fundamental matrix may be passed further to cvComputeCorrespondEpilines
that finds epipolar lines corresponding to the specified points.
Example. Estimation of fundamental matrix using RANSAC algorithm
int point_count = 100;
CvMat* points1;
CvMat* points2;
CvMat* status;
CvMat* fundamental_matrix;
points1 = cvCreateMat(1,point_count,CV_32FC2);
points2 = cvCreateMat(1,point_count,CV_32FC2);
status = cvCreateMat(1,point_count,CV_8UC1);
/* Fill the points here ... */
for( i = 0; i < point_count; i++ )
{
points1>data.db[i*2] = <x_{1,i}>;
points1>data.db[i*2+1] = <y_{1,i}>;
points2>data.db[i*2] = <x_{2,i}>;
points2>data.db[i*2+1] = <y_{2,i}>;
}
fundamental_matrix = cvCreateMat(3,3,CV_32FC1);
int fm_count = cvFindFundamentalMat( points1,points2,fundamental_matrix,
CV_FM_RANSAC,1.0,0.99,status );
ComputeCorrespondEpilines
For points in one image of stereo pair computes the corresponding epilines in the other image
void cvComputeCorrespondEpilines( const CvMat* points,
int which_image,
const CvMat* fundamental_matrix,
CvMat* correspondent_lines);
 points
 The input points.
2xN, Nx2, 3xN
or Nx3
array (where N
number of points).
Multichannel 1xN
or Nx1
array is also acceptable.
 which_image
 Index of the image (1 or 2) that contains the
points
 fundamental_matrix
 Fundamental matrix
 correspondent_lines
 Computed epilines,
3xN
or Nx3
array
For every point in one of the two images of stereopair the function
cvComputeCorrespondEpilines
finds equation of a line that contains
the corresponding point (i.e. projection of the same 3D point) in the other image.
Each line is encoded by a vector of 3 elements l=[a,b,c]^{T}
, so that:
l^{T}*[x, y, 1]^{T}=0, or
a*x + b*y + c = 0
From the fundamental matrix definition (see cvFindFundamentalMatrix
discussion), line l_{2}
for a point p_{1}
in the first image (which_image
=1) can be computed as:
l_{2}=F*p_{1}
and the line l_{1}
for a point p_{2}
in the second image (which_image
=1) can be computed as:
l_{1}=F^{T}*p_{2}
Line coefficients are defined up to a scale.
They are normalized (a^{2}+b^{2}=1
)
are stored into correspondent_lines
.
ConvertPointsHomogenious
Convert points to/from homogenious coordinates
void cvConvertPointsHomogenious( const CvMat* src, CvMat* dst );
 src
 The input point array,
2xN, Nx2, 3xN, Nx3, 4xN or Nx4
(where N
is the number of points).
Multichannel 1xN
or Nx1
array is also acceptable.
 dst
 The output point array, must contain the same number of points as the input;
The dimensionality must be the same, 1 less or 1 more than the input, and
also within 2..4.
The function cvConvertPointsHomogenious
converts 2D or 3D points
from/to homogenious coordinates, or simply copies or transposes the array.
In case if the input array dimensionality is larger than the output,
each point coordinates are divided by the last coordinate:
(x,y[,z],w) > (x',y'[,z']):
x' = x/w
y' = y/w
z' = z/w (if output is 3D)
If the output array dimensionality is larger, an extra 1 is appended to each point.
(x,y[,z]) > (x,y[,z],1)
Otherwise, the input array is simply copied (with optional tranposition) to the output.
Note that, because the function accepts a large variety of array layouts, it
may report an error when input/output array dimensionality is ambiguous.
It is always safe to use the function with number of points N
>=5, or
to use multichannel Nx1
or 1xN
arrays.
Alphabetical List of Functions
2
2DRotationMatrix
A
Acc
ApproxChains
ArcLength
AdaptiveThreshold
ApproxPoly
B
BoundingRect
BoxPoints
C
D
Dilate
DistTransform
DrawChessBoardCorners
E
EndFindContours
EqualizeHist
Erode
F
Filter2D
FindExtrinsicCameraParams2
FindNextContour
FindChessboardCorners
FindFundamentalMat
FitEllipse
FindContours
FindHomography
FitLine2D
FindCornerSubPix
FindNearestPoint2D
FloodFill
G
GetCentralMoment
GetMinMaxHistValue
GetRectSubPix
GetHistValue_*D
GetNormalizedCentralMoment
GetSpatialMoment
GetHuMoments
GetQuadrangleSubPix
GoodFeaturesToTrack
H
HaarDetectObjects
HoughCircles
HoughLines2
I
InitUndistortMap
Integral
K
KalmanCorrect
KalmanPredict
L
Laplace
LoadHaarClassifierCascade
LogPolar
M
MakeHistHeaderForArray
MaxRect
Moments
MatchContourTrees
MeanShift
MorphologyEx
MatchShapes
MinAreaRect2
MultiplyAcc
MatchTemplate
MinEnclosingCircle
N
NormalizeHist
P
POSIT
PreCornerDetect
PyrSegmentation
PointPolygonTest
ProjectPoints2
PyrUp
PointSeqFromMat
PyrDown
Q
QueryHistValue_*D
R
ReadChainPoint
ReleaseKalman
Resize
ReleaseConDensation
ReleasePOSITObject
Rodrigues2
ReleaseHaarClassifierCascade
ReleaseStructuringElement
RunHaarClassifierCascade
ReleaseHist
Remap
RunningAvg
S
T
ThreshHist
Threshold
U
Undistort2
UpdateMotionHistory
W
WarpAffine
WarpPerspective
WarpPerspectiveQMatrix
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