Automatic Mapping Among Lexico-Grammatical Annotation Models (AMALGAM)


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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The University of Pennsylvania (Penn) Treebank Tag-set

Listed alphabetically below are the standard tags used in the Penn Treebank. Each tag has examples of the tokens that were annotated with that tag. The examples are taken directly from the Penn Treebank lexicon that is supplied with Eric Brill's Transformation-Based Part-of-Speech Tagger . This is the tagger that is used as the basis for the AMALGAM e-mail tagging server.

The Penn scheme incorporates special `vertical slash' tags for occasions when the part-of-speech is ambiguous. Consider the sentence: The duchess was entertaining last night. (This example is taken from ``Part-of-Speech Tagging Guidelines for the Penn Treebank Project'' by Beatrice Santorini which is available from the the Penn Treebank site .) Does entertaining mean that she was hosting an event, in which case the word would be a present participle verb, VBG , or does entertaining act adjectively ( JJ ) implying that the Duchess was good company? Either case is possible so the Penn Treebank developers allow both tags to apply at the same time. In this case, entertaining is assigned the tag JJ|VBN . The vertical slash tags are not listed in the table below but, for completeness, those that were found to occur at least once in the Penn Treebank lexicon are listed afterwards.

The tokenisation of genitives differs in the Penn and the International Corpus of English (ICE) schemes from all of the other tagging schemes of the AMALGAM tagger. Penn and ICE do not leave the genitive marker attached to the word but strip it off. The AMALGAM tokeniser recognises this difference and removes the marker from the ends of words. There are other variations in how tokenisation is handled by the different schemes but in order to facilitate comparisons AMALGAM tokenises input text the same way, regardless of scheme, except for this one example.

If the list of examples ends with an ellipsis marker then the tag category can be assumed to be an open class.

Further reading:

Santorini, B. 1990. Part-of-speech tagging guidelines for the Penn Treebank Project. Technical report MS-CIS-90-47, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania.

Tag

Description

Examples

$

dollar

$ -$ --$ A$ C$ HK$ M$ NZ$ S$ U.S.$ US$

``

opening quotation mark

` ``

''

closing quotation mark

' ''

(

opening parenthesis

( [ {

)

closing parenthesis

) ] }

,

comma

,

--

dash

--

.

sentence terminator

. ! ?

:

colon or ellipsis

: ; ...

CC

conjunction, coordinating

& 'n and both but either et for less minus neither nor or plus so therefore times v. versus vs. whether yet

CD

numeral, cardinal

mid-1890 nine-thirty forty-two one-tenth ten million 0.5 one forty-seven 1987 twenty '79 zero two 78-degrees eighty-four IX '60s .025 fifteen 271,124 dozen quintillion DM2,000 ...

DT

determiner

all an another any both del each either every half la many much nary neither no some such that the them these this those

EX

existential there

there

FW

foreign word

gemeinschaft hund ich jeux habeas Haementeria Herr K'ang-si vous lutihaw alai je jour objets salutaris fille quibusdam pas trop Monte terram fiche oui corporis ...

IN

preposition or conjunction, subordinating

astride among uppon whether out inside pro despite on by throughout below within for towards near behind atop around if like until below next into if beside ...

JJ

adjective or numeral, ordinal

third ill-mannered pre-war regrettable oiled calamitous first separable ectoplasmic battery-powered participatory fourth still-to-be-named multilingual multi-disciplinary ...

JJR

adjective, comparative

bleaker braver breezier briefer brighter brisker broader bumper busier calmer cheaper choosier cleaner clearer closer colder commoner costlier cozier creamier crunchier cuter ...

JJS

adjective, superlative

calmest cheapest choicest classiest cleanest clearest closest commonest corniest costliest crassest creepiest crudest cutest darkest deadliest dearest deepest densest dinkiest ...

LS

list item marker

A A. B B. C C. D E F First G H I J K One SP-44001 SP-44002 SP-44005 SP-44007 Second Third Three Two \* a b c d first five four one six three two

MD

modal auxiliary

can cannot could couldn't dare may might must need ought shall should shouldn't will would

NN

noun, common, singular or mass

common-carrier cabbage knuckle-duster Casino afghan shed thermostat investment slide humour falloff slick wind hyena override subhumanity machinist ...

NNP

noun, proper, singular

Motown Venneboerger Czestochwa Ranzer Conchita Trumplane Christos Oceanside Escobar Kreisler Sawyer Cougar Yvette Ervin ODI Darryl CTCA Shannon A.K.C. Meltex Liverpool ...

NNPS

noun, proper, plural

Americans Americas Amharas Amityvilles Amusements Anarcho-Syndicalists Andalusians Andes Andruses Angels Animals Anthony Antilles Antiques Apache Apaches Apocrypha ...

NNS

noun, common, plural

undergraduates scotches bric-a-brac products bodyguards facets coasts divestitures storehouses designs clubs fragrances averages subjectivists apprehensions muses factory-jobs ...

PDT

pre-determiner

all both half many quite such sure this

POS

genitive marker

' 's

PRP

pronoun, personal

hers herself him himself hisself it itself me myself one oneself ours ourselves ownself self she thee theirs them themselves they thou thy us

PRP$

pronoun, possessive

her his mine my our ours their thy your

RB

adverb

occasionally unabatingly maddeningly adventurously professedly stirringly prominently technologically magisterially predominately swiftly fiscally pitilessly ...

RBR

adverb, comparative

further gloomier grander graver greater grimmer harder harsher healthier heavier higher however larger later leaner lengthier less-perfectly lesser lonelier longer louder lower more ...

RBS

adverb, superlative

best biggest bluntest earliest farthest first furthest hardest heartiest highest largest least less most nearest second tightest worst

RP

particle

aboard about across along apart around aside at away back before behind by crop down ever fast for forth from go high i.e. in into just later low more off on open out over per pie raising start teeth that through under unto up up-pp upon whole with you

SYM

symbol

% & ' '' ''. ) ). * + ,. < = > @ A[fj] U.S U.S.S.R \* \*\* \*\*\*

TO

"to" as preposition or infinitive marker

to

UH

interjection

Goodbye Goody Gosh Wow Jeepers Jee-sus Hubba Hey Kee-reist Oops amen huh howdy uh dammit whammo shucks heck anyways whodunnit honey golly man baby diddle hush sonuvabitch ...

VB

verb, base form

ask assemble assess assign assume atone attention avoid bake balkanize bank begin behold believe bend benefit bevel beware bless boil bomb boost brace break bring broil brush build ...

VBD

verb, past tense

dipped pleaded swiped regummed soaked tidied convened halted registered cushioned exacted snubbed strode aimed adopted belied figgered speculated wore appreciated contemplated ...

VBG

verb, present participle or gerund

telegraphing stirring focusing angering judging stalling lactating hankerin' alleging veering capping approaching traveling besieging encrypting interrupting erasing wincing ...

VBN

verb, past participle

multihulled dilapidated aerosolized chaired languished panelized used experimented flourished imitated reunifed factored condensed sheared unsettled primed dubbed desired ...

VBP

verb, present tense, not 3rd person singular

predominate wrap resort sue twist spill cure lengthen brush terminate appear tend stray glisten obtain comprise detest tease attract emphasize mold postpone sever return wag ...

VBZ

verb, present tense, 3rd person singular

bases reconstructs marks mixes displeases seals carps weaves snatches slumps stretches authorizes smolders pictures emerges stockpiles seduces fizzes uses bolsters slaps speaks pleads ...

WDT

WH-determiner

that what whatever which whichever

WP

WH-pronoun

that what whatever whatsoever which who whom whosoever

WP$

WH-pronoun, possessive

whose

WRB

Wh-adverb

how however whence whenever where whereby whereever wherein whereof why

The following `vertical slash' tags were found to occur at least once in the Penn lexicon:

CD|NN

CD|NNS

CD|NN|NP

CD|RB

DT|NN

DT|RB

IN|JJ

IN|PP

IN|RB

IN|RP

JJR|IN

JJR|RBR

JJ|CC

JJ|IN

JJ|JJR

JJ|NN

JJ|NP

JJ|RB

JJ|VBG

JJ|VBN

LS|EX

LS|JJ

LS|NN

LS|NNS

MD|VB

NNPS|NNS

NNPS|VBZ

NNP|CC|NP

NNP|JJ

NNP|NN

NNP|NP

NNP|NPS

NNP|POS

NNP|VB

NNP|VBN

NNP|VBZ

NNS|DT

NNS|LS

NNS|NN

NNS|NPS

NNS|VBZ

NN|CD

NN|DT

NN|IN

NN|JJ

NN|JJ|RB

NN|NN

NN|NNS

NN|POS

NN|RB

NN|SYM

NN|VB

NN|VBG

NN|VBP

NN|WRB

PRP|JJ

PRP|MD

PRP|VBP

RBR|JJR

RBR|NN

RBS|JJ

RBS|JJS

RB|CC

RB|DT

RB|IN

RB|JJ

RB|NN|JJ

RB|RBR

RB|RP

RB|VBG

RB|VBZ

RP|IN

RP|RB

VBD|RB

VBD|VBN

VBD|VBP

VBG|JJ

VBG|NN

VBG|NN|JJ

VBN|JJ

VBN|TO

VBN|VBD

VBP|IN

VBP|PP

VBP|TO

VBP|VB

VBP|VBD

VB|IN

VB|NN

WP|IN

WP|MD|NP


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

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