Automatic Mapping Among Lexico-Grammatical Annotation Models (AMALGAM)


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

AMALGAM Home PagePrevious PageUp A LevelNext Page

AMALGAM HOMEPAGE | PREVIOUS PAGE | UP A LEVEL | NEXT PAGE

The International Corpus of English (ICE) Tag-set

Listed alphabetically below are the tags used in the ICE corpus. Each tag has examples of the tokens that were annotated with that tag. The examples are taken directly from a corpus the AMALGAM team created by applying the ICE tagger to the Spoken English Corpus. We then trained Eric Brill's Transformation-Based Part-of-Speech Tagger using the Spoken English Corpus annotated with ICE as the training data.

There are some tags which are possible but are not included in the list below becase they were no found in the test corpus. For example, there were no plural fractions such as two-fifths which would have received the tag NUM(frac,plu). Also, there were no instances of a semi-auxiliary `-ing' participle being followed by another `-ing' participle. This would have required the AUX(semip,ingp) tag. An example word that has this part-of-speech tag is the word continuing in the sentence: he is continuing reading the book .

The tokenisation of genitives differs in the ICE and University of Pennsylvania Treebank (Penn) schemes from all of the other tagging schemes of the AMALGAM tagger. ICE and Penn do not leave the genitive marker attached to the word but strip it off. The AMALGAM tokeniser recognises this difference and removes the marker from the ends of words. There are other variations in how tokenisation is handled by the different schemes but in order to facilitate comparisons AMALGAM tokenises input text the same way, regardless of scheme, except for this one example. One consequence of the uniformity of tokenisation is that all +n't negatives are split into constituent tokens. ICE would not split these words up as can be seen from the list of part-of-speech tags below. However, it was felt that the tags applied to the split-apart tokens of +n't negatives were consistent with the ICE scheme. A word like couldn't will be tagged like the separate word-pair could and not . If the tokeniser is by-passed, however, then the correct ICE tags will be applied to words ending in n't .

If the list of examples ends with an ellipsis marker then the tag category can be assumed to be an open class.

Further information on ICE can be found at The Survey of English Usage .

Further reading:

Greenbaum, S. 1992. The ICE tagset manual. University College London.

Tag

Description

Examples

ADJ

adjective, uninflected

honorary tiny possible ordinary general popular important biblical miraculous strong real unscientific philosophical Christian usual unusual useful sunny inter-Palestinian sorry tight sombre ...

ADJ(comp)

adjective, comparative

greater lesser cheaper harder easier worse lower wider closer clearer better higher longer-term earlier stronger off quicker shriller completer milder deeper colder

ADJ(edp)

adjective, -ed participle

renewed worried used battle-marked enforced shrunken industrialised concerned drawn silver-haired controlled reassured bombed rocketed mortared American-made American-supplied pressed fried ...

ADJ(ingp)

adjective, -ing participle

uncaring amazing depressing wrangling opening disquieting appalling standing planning declining unfolding terrifying impending abiding working starting scanning surprising frustrating growing ...

ADJ(sup)

adjective, superlative

boldest scariest fiercest youngest oldest tightest easiest best toughest biggest nearest latest greatest Almagest poorest finest newest happiest wildest earliest

ADV(add)

adverb, additive

also too even both again either as well once equally neither

ADV(excl)

adverb, exclusive adjective

just merely only simply right purely alone solely but exactly

ADV(ge)

adverb, general

any recently not confidently relentlessly clearly brilliantly finally of ago here but at last enough anywhere inside always wryly certainly already all along densely over undoubtedly again up ahead ...

ADV(ge,comp)

adverb, general, comparative

less earlier more later further longer Earlier Later lower closer faster wider louder nearer deeper

ADV(ge,sup)

adverb, general, superlative

best least

ADV(inten)

adverb, intensifier

as all so very quite incredibly much enough at how particularly far rather little pretty totally nearly almost entirely relatively fairly shortly that straight hell absolutely Very extremely ...

ADV(inten,comp)

adverb, intensifier, comparative

more or less

ADV(inten,sup)

adverb, intensifier, superlative

most

ADV(partic)

adverb, particulariser

especially at least particularly mainly largely particular specifically chiefly predominantly the very

ADV(phras)

adverb, phrasal

on away out down up in off through over around back about to forward bust under short firm by apart again along round aside

ADV(rel)

adverb, relative

where when

ADV(wh)

adverb, WH-word

whenever when where how why about

ANTIT

anticipatory it

it

ART(def)

article, definite

the ye

ART(indef)

article, indefinite

an a

AUX(do,imp)

auxiliary, verb "to do", imperative

do

AUX(do,imp,neg)

auxiliary, verb "to do", imperative, negative

don't

AUX(do,past)

auxiliary, verb "to do", past tense

did

AUX(do,past,neg)

auxiliary, verb "to do", past tense, negative

didn't

AUX(do,pres)

auxiliary, verb "to do", present tense

do does doth

AUX(do,pres,neg)

auxiliary, verb "to do", present tense, negative

doesn't don't

AUX(do,pres,procl)

auxiliary, verb "to do", present tense, proclitic

d'

AUX(let, imp)

auxiliary, verb "to let", imperative

let

AUX(modal,past)

auxiliary, modal

could might should would needed to used

AUX(modal,past,encl)

auxiliary, modal, enclitic

'd

AUX(modal,past,neg)

auxiliary, modal, negative

wouldn't couldn't shouldn't

AUX(modal,pres)

auxiliary, modal, present tense

will can may could might must would shall should needs to ought

AUX(modal,pres,encl)

auxiliary, modal, present tense, enclitic

'll

AUX(modal,pres,neg)

auxiliary, modal, present tense, negative

won't can't cannot mustn't shan't

AUX(pass,edp)

auxiliary, passive, -ed participle

been

AUX(pass,infin)

auxiliary, passive, infinitive

be get

AUX(pass,ingp)

auxiliary, passive, -ing participle

being getting

AUX(pass,past)

auxiliary, passive, past tense

was were

AUX(pass,past,neg)

auxiliary, passive, past tense, negative

wasn't weren't

AUX(pass,pres)

auxiliary, passive, present tense

are is get

AUX(pass,pres,encl)

auxiliary, passive, present tense, enclitic

's 're 'm

AUX(pass,pres,neg)

auxiliary, passive, present tense, negative

isn't

AUX(pass,subjun)

auxiliary, passive, subjunctive

were

AUX(perf,infin)

auxiliary, perfect, infinitive

have

AUX(perf,ingp)

auxiliary, perfect, -ing participle

having

AUX(perf,past)

auxiliary, perfect, past tense

had haven't was

AUX(perf,past,encl)

auxiliary, perfect, past tense, enclitic

'd

AUX(perf,past,neg)

auxiliary, perfect, past tense, negative

hadn't

AUX(perf,pres)

auxiliary, perfect, present tense

have has

AUX(perf,pres,encl)

auxiliary, perfect, present tense, enclitic

's 've

AUX(perf,pres,neg)

auxiliary, perfect, present tense, negative

haven't hasn't

AUX(perf,subj)

auxiliary, perfect, subjunctive

had

AUX(prog,edp)

auxiliary, progressive, -ed participle

been

AUX(prog,infin)

auxiliary, progressive, infinitive

be

AUX(prog,past)

auxiliary, progressive, past tense

was were

AUX(prog,past,neg)

auxiliary, progressive, negative

weren't wasn't

AUX(prog,pres)

auxiliary, progressive, present tense

is are am were

AUX(prog,pres,encl)

auxiliary, progressive, present tense, enclitic

's 're 'm

AUX(prog,subjun)

auxiliary, progressive, subjunctive

were

AUX(semi,edp)

auxiliary, semi, -ed participle

seemed to begun failed

AUX(semi,infin)

auxiliary, semi, infinitive

be expected to have continue cease allowed seem need

AUX(semi,ingp)

auxiliary, semi, -ing participle

beginning to failing having

AUX(semi,past)

auxiliary, semi-auxiliary, past tense

had to were failed seemed alleged happened was began came started proceeded going needed allowed

AUX(semi,past,disc)

auxiliary, semi, past tense, discontinuous

was going to

AUX(semi,past,encl)

auxiliary, semi, past tense, enclitic

'd

AUX(semi,pres)

auxiliary, semi, present tense

seems to seem have is allowed appear begin appears fail has expected are fails liable start going

AUX(semi,pres,disc)

auxiliary, semi, present tense, discontinuous

are going to also

AUX(semi,pres,encl)

auxiliary, semi, present tense, enclitic

'm 're 's 've

AUX(semi,pres,encl,disc)

auxiliary, semi, present tense, enclitic, discontinuous

're going to

AUX(semi,pres,neg)

auxiliary, semi, present tense, negative

aren't likely to

AUX(semi,subjun)

auxiliary, semi, subjunctive

were going to

AUX(semip,edp)

auxiliary, semi that is followed by an -ing participle, -ed participle

stopped finished

AUX(semip,imp)

auxiliary, semi that is followed by an -ing participle, imperative

stop

AUX(semip,infin)

auxiliary, semi that is followed by an -ing participle, infinitive

keep

AUX(semip,past)

auxiliary, semi that is followed by an -ing participle, past tense

began to stopped finished went on carried started

CLEFTIT

cleft it

it

CONJUNC(coord)

conjunction, coordinating

and or but rather than nor as well for yet

CONJUNC(subord)

conjunction, subordinating

though that when whether because as if while now since unless after far although before however so in case order to provided or soon until whereas whilst once except considering till cause like albeit

CONNEC(appos)

connective, appositive

for example in particular that is to say namely viz

CONNEC(ge)

connective, general

however for instance well but so and in fact example too after all similarly then the same time finally though now nevertheless in case again also other words first particular ...

EXTHERE

existential there

there

FRM

formulaic expression

good morning please thank you see no problem no lo and oh dear well done thanks huh sorry hello good cheers know alas

GENM

genitive marker

's '

INTERJEC

interjection

pooh oh eh ah huh em aye em hmm er hm like

N(com,plu)

noun, common, plural

Protestant ministers Protestants immigration laws church unity schemes churches free church people churchgoers problems miracles loaves fishes scientists events writers patterns TV series ...

N(com,sing)

noun, common, singular

news founder jail tax evasion degree week award university prophet time delegation Autumn assembly reconciliation minority church grumbling Anglican practice article camera microphone attention press ...

N(prop,plu)

noun, proper, plural

Christians Free Churches Anglicans Israelites Palestinians Syrians Jews Germans Turks Rathaus Israelis Shi'ites Americans Sinhalese British Police Ethiopians Poles Commons ...

N(prop,sing)

noun, proper, singular

Reverend Sun Myung Moon Unification Church Roman University of la Plata Buenos Aires Argentina New Dr Nicholas Argentato Mr British Council Churches War Hong Kong Baptist Times Bishop Church England ...

NADJ(comp,plu)

nominal adjective, comparative plural

longer

NADJ(edp,plu)

nominal adjective, -ed participle, plural

fallen oppressed deprived slighted disabled

NADJ(ingp,plu)

nominal adjective, -ing participle, plural

suffering

NADJ(plu)

nominal adjective, plural

injured everyday persistent blessed righteous slow hurt confused unsure adventurous French English outspread young good bad deaf outstanding

NADJ(prop)

nominal adjective, proper

American fundamental

NADJ(sing)

nominal adjective, singular

usual unusual new immaterial good own early

NADJ(sup,plu)

nominal adjective, superlative, plural

slightest laxest tightest best nearest nicest oldest biggest greatest

NADJ(sup,sing)

nominal adjective, superlative, singular

worst best fairest

NUM(card,plu)

numeral, cardinal, plural

sixties thousands billions hundreds scores forty fifties 1970s seventeen twenties sixteen thirties two thirds one and 23 sixtieths three quarters millions

NUM(card,sing)

numeral, cardinal, singular

nine five thousand two one nineteen seventy three-one-eight five-o-nine a eighty-two three fifty-three thirty six twenty ten four fourteen dozen 1104.9 232 1980 1 \ 2 million twelve fifty-one ...

NUM(frac,sing)

numeral, fraction, singular

a third one fifteenth half twenty-fourth quarter

NUM(hyph)

numeral, hyphenated pair

1973-4 1979-80 2-0 5-0 1-0 7-6 6-3 1-1 4-3 3-0 two-and-a-half

NUM(mult)

numeral, multiplier

once twice thrice double tripple quadruple quintupple

NUM(ord)

numeral, ordinal

last other previous second next same further millionth first former twenty-seventh fourth twenty-second extra seventh 29th following seventeenth nineteenth sixtieth eighth fifth sixteenth eightieth 46th 6th 10th 11th

NUM(ord,plu)

numeral, ordinal, plural

others

NUM(ord,sing)

numeral, ordinal, singular

another

PREP(ge)

preposition, general

about of in for by In from between to as with into than contrary at over without like around within round among out before during outside since against through towards above front ...

PREP(phras)

preposition, phrasal

as across over for of in through with on about to into at under from without upon above down against off around along up by round onto

PROFM(conjoin)

proform, conjoin

so on et cetera

PROFM(one,plu)

proform, one, plural

ones

PROFM(one,sing)

proform, one, singular

one

PROFM(so,claus)

proform, so, clausal

not so

PROFM(so,phr)

proform, so, phrasal

so

PRON(ass)

pronoun, assertive

some

PRON(ass,sing)

pronoun, assertive, singular

something someone somebody

PRON(dem)

pronoun, demonstrative

such

PRON(dem,plu)

pronoun, demonstrative, plural

those these

PRON(dem,sing)

pronoun, demonstrative, singular

this that

PRON(exclam)

pronoun, exclamatory

what

PRON(inter)

pronoun, interrogative

what who which

PRON(neg)

pronoun, negative

none no

PRON(neg,sing)

pronoun, negative, singular

nobody no one nothing neither

PRON(nom)

pronoun, nominal relative

what whatever who which

PRON(nonass)

pronoun, nonassertive

any

PRON(nonass,sing)

pronoun, nonassertive, singular

anything anyone anybody

PRON(pers)

pronoun, personal

you

PRON(pers,plu)

pronoun, personal, plural

they we us them 's

PRON(pers,plu,encl)

pronoun, personal, plural, enclitic

's

PRON(pers,sing)

pronoun, personal, singular

he it I him her she me thee

PRON(poss)

pronoun, possessive

your thy yours

PRON(poss,plu)

pronoun, possessive, plural

our their theirs ours

PRON(poss,sing)

pronoun, possessive, singular

its my his her mine our

PRON(quant)

pronoun, quantifying

most more enough less half plenty

PRON(quant,plu)

pronoun, quantifying, plural

few many a several couple fewer

PRON(quant,sing)

pronoun, quantifying, singular

much a lot single little great deal bit such least

PRON(recip)

pronoun, reciprocal

one another each other

PRON(ref,plu)

pronoun, reflexive, plural

themselves ourselves

PRON(ref,sing)

pronoun, reflexive, singular

himself itself herself myself yourself

PRON(rel)

pronoun, relative

who that which whose whom

PRON(univ)

pronoun, universal

all

PRON(univ,plu)

pronoun, universal, plural

both

PRON(univ,sing)

pronoun, universal, singular

every each everyone everything

PROPIT

prop it

it

PRTCL(for)

particle, for

in order for

PRTCL(to)

particle, to

in order to so much as

PRTCL(with)

particle, with

with without

PUNC(cbrack)

closing parenthesis

) ]

PUNC(col)

colon

:

PUNC(com)

comma

,

PUNC(cquo)

closing quotation mark

' "

PUNC(dash)

dash

- ‐

PUNC(ellip)

ellipsis

...

PUNC(exm)

exclamation mark

!

PUNC(obrack)

opening parenthesis

( [

PUNC(oquo)

opening quotation mark

' "

PUNC(per)

period

.

PUNC(qm)

question mark

?

PUNC(scol)

semicolon

; ;

REACT

reaction signal

yes of course why oh no all right very well rubbish o why not right OK yeah

V(cop,edp)

lexical verb, copular, -ed participle

been appeared become got

V(cop,imp)

lexical verb, copular, imperative

be

V(cop,infin)

lexical verb, copular, infinitive

be seem get sound become look appear grow come keep stay feel turn

V(cop,ingp)

lexical verb, copular, -ing participle

becoming getting turning being proving feeling

V(cop,past)

lexical verb, copular, past tense

was looked became were seemed got appeared remained made weighed fell went felt turned flew

V(cop,past,neg)

lexical verb, copular, past tense, negative

wasn't weren't

V(cop,pres)

lexical verb, copular, present tense

are is get seems remains sound weighs am takes = equals looks costs look goes remain comes

V(cop,pres,encl)

lexical verb, copular, present tense, enclitic

's 're 'm

V(cop,pres,neg)

lexical verb, copular, present tense, negative

isn't aren't doesn't

V(cop,subjun)

lexical verb, copular, subjunctive

were

V(cxtr,edp)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, -ed participle

meant called regarded made turned described seen perceived known used viewed considered heralded referred entitled billed thought had got found admitted

V(cxtr,imp)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, imperative

make put keep get

V(cxtr,infin)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, infinitive

see call expect draw have present find put place push get pop

V(cxtr,ingp)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, -ing participle

defining seeing leaving making putting

V(cxtr,past)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, past tense

described had put called held shot made considered showed chose kept fixed brought fitted used tied referred

V(cxtr,pres)

lexical verb, complex-transitive, present tense

call find makes regard have show see think has puts put make

V(dimontr,imp)

lexical verb, complex-ditransitive, imperative

guide

V(dimontr,infin)

lexical verb, complex-ditransitive, infinitive

tell

V(dimontr,past)

lexical verb, complex-ditransitive, past tense

asked

V(ditr,edp)

lexical verb, ditransitive, -ed participle

awarded given shown asked offered reminded cost allowed

V(ditr,imp)

lexical verb, ditransitive, imperative

grant charge give

V(ditr,infin)

lexical verb, ditransitive, infinitive

have tell give remind teach deny charge do

V(ditr,ingp)

lexical verb, ditransitive, -ing participle

telling offering

V(ditr,past)

lexical verb, ditransitive, past tense

had told explained gave guaranteed convinced taught showed offered owed

V(ditr,pres)

lexical verb, ditransitive, present tense

ask gives offer offers give owes

V(intr,edp)

lexical verb, intransitive, -ed participle

opened said increased ended come dropped become left got emerged gone disappeared walked stopped arrived been begun grown happened benefited voted succeeded risen developed reacted changed ...

V(intr,imp)

lexical verb, intransitive, imperative

carry turn live look come depart aim rejoice come go watch speak stoop stay

V(intr,infin)

lexical verb, intransitive, infinitive

confer fade believe flow fill apply seem die change do see set go breathe head crack ache expect gaze quarrel stretch live lie stay take move integrate look leave buckle remain fly agree rise put come ...

V(intr,ingp)

lexical verb, intransitive, -ing participle

subsiding continuing leaning entering smiling flying shuttling shaking flashing peering spinning gazing moving thinking wrestling walking swarming posing rummaging brushing coming arriving drying ...

V(intr,past)

lexical verb, intransitive, past tense

was happened departed said came presided looked set drove posed replied appeared spoke opted tore exploded ducked landed taxied gazed asked went lasted consisted queued stood got sat returned ...

V(intr,past,neg)

lexical verb, intransitive, past tense, negative

didn't wasn't

V(intr,pres)

lexical verb, intransitive, present tense

talk go it alone asks say springs argue goes wait is change occur suppose claims comments said drive scurry appears cost says spreads flash are remains focusses lies exists stands happens live think ...

V(intr,pres,encl)

lexical verb, intransitive, present tense, enclitic

's

V(intr,pres,neg)

lexical verb, intransitive, present tense, negative

isn't haven't don't

V(intr,subj)

lexical verb, intransitive, subjunctive

come be

V(montr,edp)

lexical verb, monotransitive, -ed participle

had described convened chaired unexplained needed expounded covered stated required hit laid done brought told calculated interviewed founded led supported lost taken killed shot sent ...

V(montr,imp)

lexical verb, monotransitive,

take pass suppose remember recall inherit increase deepen correct comfort protect enlighten purify turn grant shun fight lift assume point read send extend expect add join enjoy

V(montr,infin)

lexical verb, monotransitive, infinitive

get recall know cause dictate happen claim try state take feel rebuild kill annoy imagine force provide use say rewrite rescue prove remove bother want hit stop raise step avoid leave call ...

V(montr,ingp)

lexical verb, monotransitive, -ing participle

announcing following including discussing doing suggesting seeking flying supporting keeping bringing opposing covering committing recalling attacking sensing trying giving winning forming ...

V(montr,past)

lexical verb, monotransitive, past tense

shared had thought followed emphasised deplored left mentioned spent murdered rattlesnaked robbed flourished hoped saw feared stopped controlled asked prepared heard held pressed reached ate took ...

V(montr,pres)

lexical verb, monotransitive, present tense

visits feel wants concerns worries want suppose have runs expect say follow forget does confront says has needs ensure include exchange claims sums fear includes adds illuminates loses affects points ...

V(montr,pres,encl)

lexical verb, monotransitive, present tense, enclitic

've

V(trans,edp)

lexical verb, transitive, -ed participle

allowed witnessed said obliged seen considered found

V(trans,imp)

lexical verb, transitive, imperative

let help teach

V(trans,infin)

lexical verb, transitive, infinitive

allow hear help expect find force see prevent make ask enable imagine remember get assist entitle

V(trans,ingp)

lexical verb, transitive, -ing participle

leaving forcing sending watching allowing assisting

V(trans,past)

lexical verb, transitive, past tense

asked wanted insisted led sent saw made found let helped overheard watched told enabled forced kept

V(trans,pres)

lexical verb, transitive, present tense

want has find need leads considers enables ask remember help hear prevent


Eric Atwell, Language research group, School of Computing, Leeds University

AMALGAM Home PagePrevious PageUp A LevelNext Page

AMALGAM HOMEPAGE | PREVIOUS PAGE | UP A LEVEL | NEXT PAGE